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46 Cards in this Set

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Age of Anxiety
1900's Post WWI transformation of beliefs, traditions, ideals and scientific discoveries. Led to millions of deaths because of new fascist, socialist, etc leaders (holocaust)
Apartheid
In 1948-1989 a South African system of “separateness” that maintained the black majority in a position of political, social and economic subordination that was implemented by the Afrikaner National Party in 1948. This policy created tremendous resistance to white rule and brought leaders like Nelson Mandela to power. Massive international anti-apartheid boycotts brought an end to this policy and allowed the creation of a new constitution in 1994, the same year that Mandela was elected as the first black president of South Africa.
Mustafa Kemal "Ataturk"
In 1881-1938 a Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, as well as the first Turkish President. This led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence, and embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular nation-state.
Details:
*The principles of Atatürk's reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established, are referred to as Kemalism
Berlin
Since 1949 communist USSR held East Berlin.
By 1961, millions of refugees were escaping to capitalist West Germany. In August 1961, a wall was constructed with search lights and watch towers to prevent escapees. Thousands escaped, several hundreds died trying. Prior to 1949, poverty and crime because Soviets were to so cruel to German captured peoples. Allies tried to bring supplies by airlift known as the Berlin blockade/airlift (1948-49). Allies were trying to save them from Communism. Wall came down on November 9, 1989.
Bolshevik Revolution
In 1917 The October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917 (in Petrograd) overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks
*Sig: The Bolsheviks founded the Soviet Union, and ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Because the revolution was not universally recognized outside of Petrograd, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War (1917–1922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In (October) 1962 A confrontation between the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States in October 1962, during the Cold War, over the placement of Soviet ballistic nuclear missiles in Cuba.
*Sig: In the end a resolution was made that the US would remove their missiles from Italy and Turkey if the Soviet Union would remove theirs from Cuba. The compromise was a particularly sharp embarrassment for Khrushchev and the Soviet Union because the withdrawal of U.S. missiles was not made public—it was a secret deal between Kennedy and Khrushchev, contributed to Khrushchev’s fall from power two years later.
Deng Xiaoping
He lived 1904-1997 and served as the paramount leader of the People’s Republic of China (in the 1980s)
*Sig: Deng moderated Mao Zedong’s commitment to Chinese self-sufficiency and isolation and engineered China’s entry into the international financial and trading system and normalized the relations between China and the US.
European Union
In 1993 an economic and political union of 27 member states which are located primarily in Europe. Committed to regional integration, the EU was established by the Treaty of Maastricht upon the foundations of the European Communities
Sig: caused greater European economic and political integration
*Fascism
20th century, prominent between 1919 and 1945. 20th century idea of collectivism that emphasized order and public display. Was anti-communist/socialist and anti-semitic
Sig: Led to dictatorships such as Hitler and to the extermination of undesirables. Focus on nationalism created a feeling of entitlement to the country, which led to the takeover of other countries.
Details:
*Created secret police in Italy and Germany
Sigmund Freud
Lived 1856-1939. An Austrian medical doctor that focused on psychological explanations of mental disorders, particularly because of a conflict between conscious and unconscious mental processes.
SIG: Freudian doctrines shaped the psychiatric profession and established a powerful presence in literature and the arts through the age of anxiety and beyond.
Mohandas Gandhi
Lived 1869-1948 as the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement
*Sig: Gandhi’s philosophy of passive resistance (Satyagraha) influenced many people across the globe, including Martin Luther King Jr.
GATT
1947-1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; was replaced in 1994 by the WTO (world trade organization)
*Sig: Has expanded globalization in general, has caused world trade to increase substantially
Details:
*Membership required adherence to rules regarding reduction of trade barriers, etc.
*Membership also provides lower trade restrictions
*Has been decried by 3rd world countries as neo-imperialism or economic imperialism.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Leader of the USSR in the 1980s. Responsible for the opening up of the USSR in social and economic policy
Details:
*used the term perestroika to describe his efforts to decentralize the economy
And Glasnost - public openness of the government
Perestroika was the restructuring of the political and economic system
Great Leap Forward
1958-1961 the vision by Mao that planned how China would overtake the industrial production of more developed nations. It involved collectivization of all land and businesses.
private ownership was abolished
Sig: as a result, agriculture suffered and resulted in one of the deadliest famines in history
Details:
*also known as the “giant step backward”
Great Depression
1929-1940s a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II
Sig: The majority of countries set up relief programs, and most underwent some sort of political upheaval, pushing them to the left or right. In some states, the desperate citizens turned toward nationalist demagogues—the most infamous being Adolf Hitler—setting the stage for World War II in 1939.
Green Revolution
The term was first used in 1968. Agricultural revolution to change crops and planting styles. It produced enough crops to make sure the population did not exceed the land output and make the farmland barren.
Information Revolution
Late 20th Century-Present. The exponential technological growth since the invention of the computer.
SIG: Increased globalization and communication.
Details:
*As the number of calculations increase, the price decreases
*Government cannot control the spread of information (Twitter in Iran-2009 and Recording of events in Weng’an, China-2008)
*Oppressive Potential (Yahoo cooperated with Chinese Gov. in 2005; surveillance cameras)
*Routinization of every-day tasks
*Goods can be distributed with greater variety, and fewer people involved.
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)
1887-1975. Political and military leader of 20th century China. He served as chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China. He led civil war against the communist party in China. He was Mao Zedong’s main rival for power in China after 1925 when Sun Yatsen died
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
(1900-1989) Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Sig: saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Supported the taking hostage of US embassy workers. Details:12 million people attended his funeral
Martin Luther King
1929-1968 Prominent leader of the African American Civil Rights movement. His work helped end racial segregation and discrimination in the United States.
*Got his non-violent protest ideas from Gandhi
*Assassinated on April 4, 1968
*I have a dream
*Baptist minister
Korean War
1950-1953 President Truman and General MacArthur stopping the spread of communism from North Korea to South Korea
sig: First war that the UN advocated and sent troops to aid another country (although 95% were American troops). Marked the 38th parallel as the dividing line between North and South Korea.
Details: President Truman dismissed General MacArthur because MacArthur wanted all-out war and Truman didn’t.
16 countries from the UN helped South Korea.
Osama bin Laden
1957- present. Founder of the Islamic extremist organization al-Qaeda mastermind behind the September 11 attacks on the United States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets. Also helped Afghanistan to keep Russia out of its borders due to training from the US
Details:
*on FBI’s list of top ten most wanted fugitives
He’still out there somewhere...
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
1870-1924 Revolutionary Marxist and leader of the Bolshevik socialist party in Russia
Sig: Led the Revolution in Russia to withdraw from the war. Led Bolsheviks to overthrow the government.
Details: Sent by Germany to disrupt Russia during WWI, declared that communist coup would require an active revolutionary vanguard to coordinate class tensions.
*Wrote Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism in 1916
Nelson Mandela
1918-Present. Served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election.
Sig: inspired direct action campaigns to protest apartheid
Details:
*often known as uTata Madiba
*awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Mao Zedong
1893-1976 Leader of the communist movement in China. Created his own form of Marxism-Leninism “Socialism with Chinese characteristics.”
Details:
*Came from peasant background
*Gained power during the Long March (1934)
Benito Mussolini
1883-1945 was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party. Dictator of Italy 1922-1943.
Sig: credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism. Wanted to restore Italy to the glory of the Roman Empire and annexed Libya, Algeria and Ethiopia. Executed by his own people in 1945.
Mutually Assured Destruction
20th century a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender, becoming thus a war that has no victory nor any armistice but only total destruction. Proponents of MAD as part of U.S. and USSR strategic doctrine believed that nuclear war could best be prevented if neither side could expect to survive a full scale nuclear exchange as a functioning state
Details:
* referred to as nuclear deterrence
Gamal Abdel Nasser
1918-1970 the second President of Egypt. Led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan, and heralded a new period of modernization, and socialist reform in Egypt
Details:
*many in the general Arab populace view Nasser as a symbol of Arab dignity and freedom.
Jawaharlal Nehru
1889-1964 an Indian statesman who was the first prime minister of India. One of the leading figures in the Indian independence movement
Details:
*He is frequently referred to as Pandit Nehru, meaning scholar or teacher
*worked with Gandhi to urge Indians to act and feel as one nation regardless of their religious affiliations
New Deal
1933-1936 a series of economic programs implemented in the United States in response to the Great Depression
Sig: focused on relief for the unemployed and poor; recovery of the economy to normal levels; and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression, first implemented by FDR
OPEC
1960 The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; an organization begun by oil-producing states originally for purely economic reasons but that later had more political influence
Sig: its decisions have had considerable influence on international oil prices
Details:
*Headquarters in Vienna since 1965
Juan and Eva Peron
Second wife of President Juan Perón (1895–1974) and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952.
ID: She worked hard to help low class workers and fought for women’s suffrage in Argentina. People praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labor
Details: Eva pursued a career as an actress. President Juan Peron was overthrown in a military coup in 1955, but regained power in 1973-1974, to be succeeded by his third wife.
*Peronist Party still exists in their name. Strengthened world movement to help women and workers, especially in South America.
Ronald Reagan
1911-2004 The 40th President of the United States. Advocated new political and economic initiatives like controlling the money supply to reduce inflation, and spurring economic growth by reducing tax rates, government regulation of the economy, and certain types of government spending. Outspent the Soviet Union in military spending that influenced the collapse of the USSR. Diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
1882-1945. 32nd president of the U.S who led the U.S during WWII and helped get the US out of the Great Depression with his New Deal which improved financial and working conditions.
*Good neighbor policy
*Only president elected more than two terms
*Longest president to serve
Augusto Cesar Sandino
1895-1934 A Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion against the U.S. military occupation of Nicaragua
Sig: engaged the US into a guerilla war to oppose their dominion
Details:
*became a hero to many leftists in Nicaragua and much of Latin America as a Robin Hood figure who opposed domination from wealthy elites and foreigners
Schlieffen Plan
1905 German plan for fighting a continental European war on two fronts, swiftly defeating France first, then focusing on Russia. When WWI began, Germany put into affect this plan, but it failed.
*Plan developed by General Count Alfred von Schlieffen (1833-1913)
*Plan required German troops to march through neutral Belgium.
*Germans used virtually the same plan in WWII.
Space Race
Mid to late 20th century. Competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (USA) for supremacy in outer space exploration motivated by the Cold War. Sparked unprecedented increases in spending on education and pure research, which accelerated scientific advancements and led to beneficial spin-off technologies. Brought about major support for the NASA program in the US
Josef Stalin
1878-1953. Communist leader of the Soviet Union. Created the Five-Year Plan. Implemented collectivization of agriculture and Comintern. Believed death was necessary for revolution. Killed around 20 million people.
Total War
First implemented in 20th century warfare that involved entire societies of each country.
Sig: Created a military front and a home front. Became important how the citizens of each country supported the war effort.
Details:
*Was used in WWI and WWII.
Truman Doctrine
1947 a policy set forth by U.S. President Harry S Truman stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere
Sig: marked start of Cold War by attempts to contain the Soviet Union
Details:
*led to the US joining NATO
Treaty of Versailles
1919 one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I; ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
Sig: punished Germany which led to WWII
Details:
*Paris Peace Conference concluded the treaty
Vietnam War
1959-1975 A Cold War conflict involving the US, Russia, and China over Democratic and Communist Vietnam. Geneva Conference in 1954 divided Vietnam on the 17th Parallel. North Vietnam was Communist, under leadership of Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) South Vietnam was non-Communist. United States broke the agreement of the Geneva Conference, interfering with the South’s elections because it feared that the South would vote for Ho Chi Minh and Communism. Vietnamization” of the conflict--Nixon wanted Vietnam to take over the fight in 1973 so US soldiers could withdraw.
*The US already assisted the French previously against Vietnamese Communism.
Women's Suffrage
The 19th Amendment was added in the United States in 1920. The right of women to vote and to run for office. Many women received the right to vote after the Great War, but this still did not equal social or economic equality
*In Socialist or communist societies such as the Soviet Union, Cuba, and China transformed their legal systems to ensure basic equalities.
*Mao Zedong said, “Women hold up half the sky.”
*Bill Gates told a Muslim country that they will never be an economic power until it uses the other half of their skills (women)
Woodrow Wilson
1913-1921 28th President of the United States who wrote the 14 points during WWI in 1918 and established the League of Nations. Fourteen Points pointed out the moral, political and all otherwise aims of WWI. The United States never joined the League of Nations.
Yugoslavia
April 6, 1941 Germany, Italy, and Hungary attacked
Nazi Germany
1933 to 1945 is the common name for the country of Germany while governed by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP). During the war, Germany conquered and occupied most of Europe and Northern Africa. The Nazis persecuted and killed millions of Jews, Romani people and others in the Holocaust Final Solution. by 1945 Germany had been defeated by the Allied Powers, and was occupied by the Soviet Union, US, UK and France.