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42 Cards in this Set

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Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
Chancellor of German Emperor William II. Gave Austria a "blank check" to help them in war with Russia. Driven from office by Hindenburg and Ludendorff.
Siegfried Sassoon
British poet, wrote of the Somme offensive, said, "I am staring at a sunlit picture of Hell."
Erich Remarque
Wrote "All Quiet on the Western Front"
Walter Rathenau
Jewish industrialist, convinced the German government to set up the War Raw Material's Board to ration and distribute raw materials.
Vera Brittain
English, nurse during World War I. Started out pro-war, became anti-war. Wrote "Testament of Youth".
Lavr Kornilov
Russian war hero, led a feeble attack against the provisional government. Bolsheviks were rearmed to fight him.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican senator, led a group of U.S. senators refusing to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.
Hussein ibn-Ali
Arab leader, a direct descendant of Muhammad. Sharif of Mecca, governed much of the Ottoman Empire's teritory along the Red Sea.
T.E. Lawrence
Lawrence of Arabia. British, led Arab tribesmen and Indian soldiers in a guerrilla war against the Turks on the Arabian peninsula.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
Britain and France had secretly agreed that France would receive modern-day Lebanon, Syria, and much of southern Turkey, and Britain would receive Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq. Contradicted British promises concerning Arab independence after the war.
Treaty of Lausanne
Abolished capitulations that the Europeans had imposed in the nineteenth century to give their citizens special privileges in the Ottoman Empire.
Mustafa Kemal
Father of modern Turkey. Military man. Nationalist, believed Turkey should modernize and secularize. Turkish persident.
Amanullah Khan
Ruler of Afghanistan. Inspired by Mustafa Kemal. Anti-British, declared war holy war on British government in India. Made reforms in an attempt to bring his country into the 20th century.
Kibbutz
Key unit of agricultural organization (in Palestine). Collective farm on which each member shared equally in the work, rewrds, and defense on the farm.
Lucknow Pact
Hindu alliance with India's Muslim League. Founded to uphold Muslim interests, had grown out of fears arising from the fact that under British rule the Muslim majority had become minority, behind Hindus.
Reginald Dyer
English commander in India, banned all public meetings on the day a large group gathered to celebrate a Hindu festival. Brutally massacred the celebrators in the Amritsar Massacre.
Satyagraha
A weapon developed by Gandhi. Means "Soul Force". A means of striving for truth and social justice through love, suffering, and conversion of the oppressor.
Jawaharlal Nehru
Indian. With a group of radical nationalists, pushed through the National Congress a resolution calling for virtual independence within a year.
Sun Yatsen
Allied his Nationalist Party in China with the Chinese Communist Party.
Hu Shi
Intellectual champion of liberalism. Chinese. Envisioned a vague and uninspiring for future. Said reconstruction of China was possible, but it would have to occur gradually.
Mao Zedong
Chinese. Marxian socialist. Revolutionist. Let peasant revolts.
Henri Bergson
French philosophy professor. Argued that immediate experience and intuition were as important as rational and scientific thinking for understanding reality.
Georges Sorel
French socialist. Rejected democracy, characterized Marxian socialism as an inspiring but unprovable religion rather than a rational scientific truth. Said Socialism would come to power through a violent strike of the working people.
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Austrian philosopher. Wrote "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus". Said philosophy is only the logical clarification of thoughts and that it therefore becomes the study of language. Said the great philosophical issues of the ages are senseless.
Jean-Paul Sartre
French existentialist. Said human being simply exist. Said "man is condemned to be free."
Soren Kierkegaard
Danish religious philosopher. Rejected formalistic religion. Resolved his personal anguish over his imperfect nature by making a total religious commitment to a remote and majestic God.
Gabriel Marcel
Leading existential Christian thinker. Found in the Catholic church an answer to what he called the postwar "broken world". Denounced anti-semitism.
Marie Curie
Polish-born physicist. Discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles and thus does not have a constant atomic weight.
Max Planck
German physicist showed in 2900 that subatomic energy is emitted in uneven little spurts, which he called "quanta".
Albert Einstein
German-born Jewish genius. Theory of special relativity.
Ernest Rutherford
Showed that the atom could be split.
Virginia Woolf
English novelist. Wrote "Jacob's room"
James Joyce
Irish novelist, wrote "Ulysses".
Oswald Spengler
German high school teacher, wrote "The Decline of the West", an international sensation. Said Western civilization would be conquered by yellow people.
Franz Kafka
Wrote "The Trial" and "The Castle". Showed helpless individuals crushed by inexplicably hostile forces.
George Orwell
Englishman, saw the nightmarish reality of the Nazi state and wrote "1984".
Louis Sullivan
Led the Chicago school of architects. Built skyscrapers.
Paul Cezanne
Postimpressionist painter. Committed to form and ordered design. Later became abstract and nonrepresentational. Had a profound influenceo n twentieth-century painting.
Pablo Picasso
Founded a movement, cubism. Painted "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon". Painter.
Igor Stravinsky
Composer, wrote "The Rite of Spring".
Charlie Chaplin
Funny Englishman working in Hollywood, the king of the "silver screen". Demonstrated that in the hands of a genius the new medium (film) could combine mass entertainment and artistic accomplishment.
Guglielmo Marconi
Radio become possible with the transatlantic "wireless" communication of Guglielmo Marconi.