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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Work
carrying out tasks that require the expenditure of mental and physical effort, which has as its objective the production of goods and services that cater to human needs
occupation
work that is done in exchange for a regular wage, or salary
economy
consists of insitutions that provide for the production and distribution of goods and services
social significance of work (414)
money, activity level, variety, temporal structure, social contacts, personal identity
informal economy
transactions outside of the sphere of regular employment, sometimes involving the exchange of cash for services provided and the direct exchange of goods or services
Division of Labor
work is divided into an enormous number of different occupations in which people specialize- creates economic interdependence
Frederick W. Taylor
devised his system and published "scientific management" in 1911
Taylorism
divides work into simple tasks that can be timed and organized- time motion studies
Fordism
extended the principles of scientific management to mass production tied to mass markets
Karl Marx- alienation
describes industrial production within capitalist settings where workers have little or no control over their work
low-trust systems
(Taylorism and Fordism) jobs are set by management and geared to machines, closely supervised and allowed little autonomy of action
high-trust systems
workers are permitted to control the pace and even the content of their work, within overall guidelines
unions
developed as a means of addressing the imbalance of power between workers and employers
strike
temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees in order to express a grievance or enforce a demand
labor unions in the west are facing a threat from three related changes...
recession in world economic activity (some part due to unemployment)which weakens the bargaining position of labor, increasing intensity of international competition (lower wages), and the rise to power in many countries of rightist governments that launched an aggressive assault on unions in the 1980s
Features of capitalism
1. private ownership of the means of production
2. profit as incentive
3. free competition for markets to sell goods, aquire cheap materials, and utilize cheap labor
4. restless expansion and investment to accumulate capital
monopoly
when one firm occupies a commanding position in a given industry
oligopoly
a situation in which a small group of giant corporations predominate
transnational or multinational corporations
companies that operate across many different boundaries
international division of labor
the specialization in producing goods for the world market that divides regions into zones of industrial or agricultural production or high- or low-skilled labor
ethnocentric transnationals
company policy is set and as far as possible put intopractice from a headquarters in the country of origin - are cultural extensions of the originating company
polycentric transnationals
overseas subsidaries are managed by local firms in each counrty- main company establishes broad guidelines
geocentric transnationals
international in their management structure- systems are integrated on a global basis
automation (429)
programmable machinery
Post-Fordism
flexibility and innovation are maximized in order to meet market demands for diverse, customized products
flexible production
process in which computers design customized products for a mass market
knowledge economy
refers to an economy in which ideas, information, and forms of knowledge underpin innovation and economic growth- much of the work force is involved in the design, development and technology, marketing, servicing and sales of products, not physical production or distribution of material goods
portfolio worker
a number of different job skills and credentials that people will use to move between several jobs during the course of their working lives