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121 Cards in this Set

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ankylosing spondylitis?
form of arthritis that first affects the spine and adjacent structures, and that as it progresses, causes a forward bend of the spine. (Also called rheumatiod spondylitis.
Bunion?
Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe. often caused from poorly fitted shoes. (also called ballux valgus)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?
a common, painful disorder of the wrist caused by compression of a nerve.
Colles Fracture?
a type of wrist fracture
exostosis?
abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (also called spur)
fracture?
broken bone
Gout?
disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals to be disposited in the joints, especially that of the great toe.
herniated disk?
rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots.
Muscular Dystrophy?
group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle weakness.
Myasthenia gravis?
chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. The face, larynx, and throat are frequently affected.
Osteoporosis?
Abnormal loss of bone density occuring frequently in postmenopausal women
Rheumatoid arthritis?
A chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body.
Chiropodist, podiatrist?
specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot, including medical and surgical treatment.
Chiropractic?
system of therapy that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column
Chiropractor?
specialist in chiropractic
Orthopedics?
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
Orthopedist?
physician who specializes in orthopedics.
Orthotics?
Making and fitting of orthopedic appliances, such as arch supports, used to support, align, prevent, or correct defomities.
orthotist?
a person who specializes in orthotics.
osteopath?
physician who specializes in osteopathy.
osteopathy?
system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis and treatment but places greater emphasis on the role of the relation between body organs and the musculoskeletal system. Manipulation may be used in addition to other treatments.
Prosthesis?
an artificial substitute for a missing body part such as a leg, eye, or total hip replacement.
Alzheimer Disease?
disease characterized by early senility, confusion, loss of recognition of persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness, and impaired memory.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
progressive muscle atrophy caused by hardening of nerve tissue on the lateral column of the spinal cord. Also called Lou Gebrig Disease.
Bell Palsy?
Paralysis of muscles on one side of the face, usually a temporary condition. Symptoms include sagging mouth on the affected side and nonclosure of the eyelid
Cerebral Aneurysm?
Aneurysm in the cerebrum
Cerebral Palsy?
Condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after
Cerebrovascular accident?
Interruption of blood supply to the brain caused by cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolus, or cerebral hemorrhage. Also called a stroke.
Epilepsy?
disorder in which the main symptom in recurring seizures.
hydrocephalus?
increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, which can cause enlargement of the cranium.
multiple sclerosis?
degenerative disease characterized by sclerotic patches along the brain and spinal cord.
Neurosis?
emotional disorder that involves an ineffective way of coping with anxiety or inner conflict.
Parkinson Disease?
chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Symptoms include resting tremors of the hands, and feet, rigiditiy and expressionless face and shuffling gait. Usually occurs after the age of 50
psychosis?
major mental disorder characterized by extreme derangement, often with delusions and hallucinations.
Reye syndrome?
disease of the brain and other organs such as the liver. affects children and adolescents. Usually follows viral infection.
sciatica?
inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain that travels from the thigh through the leg to the foot and toes. Can be caused by injury, infection, arthritis, herniated disk, or from prolonged pressure on the nerve from sitting for long periods.
shingles?
viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves. also called herpes zoster
transient ischemic attack?
sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time. The symptoms may be similar to those of CVA, but with TIA the symptoms are temporary and dthe usual outcome is complete recovery.
computed tomography of the brain (CT scan)?
process that includes the use of a computer to produce a series of images of the tissues of the brain at any desired depth. its useless in diagnosing brain tumors.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI scan)?
a noninvasive technique that produces cross sectional and sagittal images of soft tissues of the brain by magnetic waves. MRI produces images without use of radiation. It is used to visualize tumors, edema, multiple sclerosis, and herniated disks.
Positron Emission Tomography of the brain (PET scan)?
an imaging technique with a radioactive substance that permits viewing a slice of the brain to examine blood flow and metabolic activity. Images are project on a viewing screen.
Evoked potential studies (Ep Studies)?
a group of diagnostic tests measure changes and responses in brain waves elicited by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli.
Lumbar Puncture?
insertion of a needle into the subarchnoid space usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. It is used for the removal of cerebrospinal fluid.
afferent?
toward a center
ataxia?
lack of muscle coordination
cognitive?
pertaining to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory, and reason
coma?
state of profound unconsciousness.
concussion?
jarring or shaking that results in an injury.
conscious?
awake, alert, aware of one's surroundings.
convulsion?
sudden, involuntary contraction of a group of muscles (seizure)
dementia?
loss of cognitive abilities.
disorientation?
a state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity.
efferent?
away from the center/
Gait?
a manner or style of walking
incoherent?
unable to express ones thoughts or ideas in an orderly intelligble manner.
paraplegia?
paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord.
seizure?
sudden attack with an involuntary series of contractions
shunt?
tube implanted in the body to redirect the flow of a fluid.
Syncope?
fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum.
unconsciousness?
state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, or illness.
cognitive?
pertaining to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory, and reason
coma?
state of profound unconsciousness.
concussion?
jarring or shaking that results in an injury.
conscious?
awake, alert, aware of one's surroundings.
convulsion?
sudden, involuntary contraction of a group of muscles (seizure)
dementia?
loss of cognitive abilities.
disorientation?
a state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity.
efferent?
away from the center/
Gait?
a manner or style of walking
incoherent?
unable to express ones thoughts or ideas in an orderly intelligble manner.
paraplegia?
paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord.
seizure?
sudden attack with an involuntary series of contractions
shunt?
tube implanted in the body to redirect the flow of a fluid.
Syncope?
fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum.
unconsciousness?
state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, or illness.
cognitive?
pertaining to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory, and reason
coma?
state of profound unconsciousness.
concussion?
jarring or shaking that results in an injury.
conscious?
awake, alert, aware of one's surroundings.
convulsion?
sudden, involuntary contraction of a group of muscles (seizure)
dementia?
loss of cognitive abilities.
disorientation?
a state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity.
efferent?
away from the center/
Gait?
a manner or style of walking
incoherent?
unable to express ones thoughts or ideas in an orderly intelligble manner.
paraplegia?
paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord.
seizure?
sudden attack with an involuntary series of contractions
shunt?
tube implanted in the body to redirect the flow of a fluid.
Syncope?
fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum.
unconsciousness?
state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, or illness.
anorexia nervosa?
an eating disorder characterized by failure to maintain body weight, intensive fear of gaining weight, pronounced desire for thinness, and in females, amenorrhea.
anxiety disorder?
an emotional disorder characterized by feelings of apprehension, tension, r uneasiness arisong typically from the anticipation of unreal or imagined danger.
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
a disorder of learning and behavioral problems characterized by marked inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.
Bipolar Disorder?
a major psychological disorder tyified by a disturbance in mood. The disorder is manifested by manic and depressive episodes that may alternate or may occur simultaneously.
panic attack?
an episode of acute anxiety, occuring unpredictably with feelings of acute apprehension, dsypnea, dizziness, sweating, and or chest pain.
pica?
compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances such as clay or ice. This condition is often a result of an iron deficiency.
Posttraumatic stress disorder?
a disorder characterized by an acute emotional response to a traumatic event or severe emotional stress such as airplane crash, repeated physical or emotional trauma. symptoms include anxiety, sleep disturbance, difficulty concentrating and depression.
schizophrenia?
any on of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross disortions of reality, disturbance or language and communication, withdrawal from social interaction.
somatoform disorders?
physical symptoms for which no known physical cause exists.
acidosis?
condition brought about by an abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism, seen frequently in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
Addison Disease?
chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex. Symptoms may include weakness, darkening of skin, loss of appetite, depression.
Cretinism?
condition caused by congenital absence or atrophy of the throid gland, resulting in hypothyroidism. the disease is characterized by puffy features, mental deficiency, large tongue, and dwarfism.
Cushing syndrome?
group of symptoms attributed to the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortices. symptoms include abnormally pigmented skin, pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, buffalo hump, moon face, and wasting away of muscle.
Diabetes insipidus?
result of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. symptoms include excessive thirst and large amounts of urine and sodium being exerted from the body
Diabetes mellitus?
chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. if not treated a person could develop ketosis, acidosis, and a coma.its caused by the under activity of the islets in the pancreas.
gigantism?
condition brought about by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland before puberty.
Goiter?
enlargment of the thyroid gland.
Graves Disease?
a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of the hyperthyroidism, goiter and exophthalmos
Ketosis?
condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies
myxedema?
condition resulting from a deficiency of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. A severe form of hypothyroidism in an adult. Symptoms include puffiness of the face and hands, coarse and thickened skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech and anemia.
tetany?
condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone
thyrotoxicosis?
a condition caused by excessive thyroid hormones.
radioactive iodine uptake test?
a nuclear medicine scan that measures thyroid function. Radioactive iodine is given to the patient orally, after which its uptake into the thyroid gland is measured.
Thyroid scan?
a nuclear medicine test that shows the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland. The patient is given a radioactive substance to visualize the thyroid gland. used to detect tumors and nodules.
Fasting blood sugar?
a blood test to determine the amount of glucose in the blood after fasting for 8-10 hours.
thyroid-stimulating hormone level?
a blood test that measures the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood. Used to diagnose hyperthyroidism and to monitor patients on thyroid replacement therapy.
Thyroxine level?
a blood study that gives the direct measurement of the amount of thyroxine in the patients blood. a greater-than-normal amount indicates hyperthyroidism, a less-than-normal amount indicates hypothyroidism.
exophthalmos?
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
Hormone?
a chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is carried in the blood to a target tissue.
Isthmus?
narrow strip of tissue connecting two large parts in the body, such as the isthmus that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland
Metabolism?
sum total of all the chemical processes that take place in a living organism.