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52 Cards in this Set

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4 Cardinal Signs of Pediatric Respiratory Failure:
Restlessness
Tachypnea
Tachycardia
Diaphoresis
Pediatric Respiratory Distress Red Flags:
Nasal Flaring
Head Bobbing
Grunting
Retractions
Color Change
Anorexia
Wheezing (expiratory)
Stridor (inspiratory)
Change in depth/pattern of respiration
Headache/CNS/Behavior
Viral Nasopharyngitis: Symptoms -
Congestion, fever, malaise, sneezing, muscle aches, nasal discharge
Viral Nasopharyngitis: Treatment -
Symptom relief:
Elevate head
Nasal suction/saline nose drops
Cool mist vaporizer
Encourage fluids
Hand washing
Upper Respiratory Infections: Tonsillitis -
Inflammation of the tonsils
Tonsillitis: Symptoms -
Mouth Breathing
Long Time Eating
Difficulty Swallowing
Bad Breath
Impaired Taste/Smell
Nasal Voice
Muffled
Tonsillitis: Treatment -
Symptomatic
Tonsillectomy
Tonsillitis: GABHS -
Tonsillitis caused by Group A Betahemolytic Strep. Must preform a swab to diagnose.
Tonsillitis: GABHS Symptoms -
Acute Onset of Headache
Fever
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Anterior Cervical Lymphadenopathy
Absence of Cough
Scarlitinaform Rash
GABHS: Scarlet Fever -
Strep + Rash + Fever
GABHS: Scarletina -
Strep + Rash
GABHS: Treatment -
PCN
GABHS: Nursing Interventions -
Cool Foods/Fluids
Analgesia
Completion of Antibiotic Therapy
Isolation for 24 After Med. Admin.
Tonsillectomy:
Surgical removal of the tonsils
Tonsillectomy: Indications -
Hypertrophy that results in massive tonsils
Sleep Apnea
Persistent/Frequent documented Strep infections
Peritonsillar abscess
Tonsillectomy: Pre-Op Nursing Considerations -
Baseline Hx
Vital Signs
Airway Staging
Check for URI/Lung Sounds
Bleeding Problems/Coag. Studies
Loose/Missing Teeth
Tonsillectomy: Post-Op Nursing Considerations -
Minimize Activity
Liquid/Soft Diet
Cool Mist Vaporizer
Throat Lozenges
Pain Control (ATC)
Keep on Abdomen/Side Till Awake
Suction Carefully
May Sit When Alert
In Bed 1 Day
Discourage Coughing/Clearing Throat/Nose Blowing
Check for Fresh Blood
Ice Collar
No Red Food/Beverages/Meds
Tonsillectomy: Symptoms of Post-Op Hemorrhage -
Vomiting Bright Red Blood
Restlessness
^ Pulse
Frequent Throat Clearing/Swallowing
Tonsillectomy: Home Care -
Pain may return post-op day 5-10 and risk for hemorrhage returns as eschars fall off.
Infectious Mononucleosis: Epstein-Barr Virus -
Acute, self-limiting infectious disease characterized by an increase in mononuclear elements of the blood. Transmitted via oral secretions and mildly contagious.
Infectious Mononucleosis: Epstein-Barr Virus Symptoms -
Malaise
Decreased Activity Tolerance
Sore Throat
Fever
Lymphadenopathy
Splenomegaly
Infectious Mononucleosis: Epstein-Barr Virus Nursing Considerations -
Comfort
Prevention of secondary infections
Rest
Reassurance
Croup Syndromes:
Acute Epiglottitis
Acute Laryngitis
Acute Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
Acute Spasmotic Laryngitis
Bacterial Tracheitis
Croup Syndromes: General Symptoms -
Barky/Brassy Cough
Inspiratory Stridor
Viral Cause Initially then Symptoms Progress
Occurs Late Autumn to Winter
Between Ages 6mo - 3yrs
Croup Syndromes: Acute Epiglottitis -
Serious obstructive inflammatory process most often caused by H. Influenza.
Acute Epiglottitis: Symptoms -
Abrupt Onset
Fever 104-106F
*Agitation
Struggle for air (tripod, chin thrust out, mouth open, tongue protruding, *drooling)
*Absence of Cough
Acute Epiglottitis: Prevention -
HIB
Acute Epiglottitis: Nursing Management -
No Crying
Keep Airway Patent
Nothing in Mouth
Intubation Supplies Available
Parents at Bedside
Acute Epiglottitis: Treatment -
Intubation
Corticosteroids
Antibiotics
Lower Respiratory Infections: Bronchitis -
Inflammation of the large airways. Typically caused by virus Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Self-limiting over 7-10 days.
Bronchitis: Symptoms -
Dry hacking cough worsening at night.
Bronchitis: Treatment -
Palliative
Lower Respiratory Infections: Bronchiolitis -
Acute viral infection of the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract most commonly caused by RSV. Peak incidence between 2-5 months in fall and winter.
Bronchiolitis: Symptoms -
Onset-
URI
Low grade temp
Rhinorrhea
Otitis Media
Conjunctivitis
Cough

Progression-
^ Coughing and Wheezing
Air Hunger
Tachypnea & Retractions
Cyanosis
Listless
Apneic Spells
Poor Air Exchange
Bronchiolitis: Transmission -
Contact. Very easy to transmit. Can survive for hours on surfaces.
Bronchiolitis: Diagnosis -
Tests on nasopharyngeal secretions for RSV
Bronchiolitis: Nursing Management -
Rest
Fluids
Respiratory Treatments
High Risk Groups:
Respigam
Synagis
Viral Pneumonia:
Most Common Type
Rales Present
Patchy or Diffuse Infiltrates on X-ray
Viral Pneumonia: Nursing Considerations -
Children at risk for secondary bacterial infections
Treatment is asymptomatic
Bacterial Pneumonia:
Serious infection most often caused by S. Pneumoniae but may also be caused by group A Streptococci, S. aureus, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae.
Bacterial Pneumonia Symptoms:
Acute Onset
Fever
Cough
Tachypnea
Rhonchi or Fine Crackles
Chest Pain
Retractions
Nasal Flaring
Pallor or Cyanosis
Bacterial Pneumonia Diagnosis:
Xray
Blood/Sputum Cultures
CBC - ^WBC
Bacterial Pneumonia Treatment:
Outpatient-
Amoxicilli
Augmentin
Erythromycin

Inpatient-
IV: Cephalosporins
Fluid & Oxygen Support
Asthma/RAD:
Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways
Asthma/RAD: Symptoms -
Dyspnea
Headache
Fatigue
Wheezing
Hacking non-productive cough
Tightness in chest
Variable lung sounds
Asthma/RAD: Diagnoses -
History & Physical Exam
Chronic cough -infection
Pulmonary function test
PERF (severity)
Asthma/RAD: Goal of Treatment -
To prevent disability and assist in normal happy living.
Asthma/RAD: Medications - Glucocorticoids
Reduce:
Inflammation
Bronchial Hyper-reactivity
Mucous Production

Primarily used in inhaled form but oral may be used in severe cases.

EX:
Beclovent
Vanceril
Decadron
Flovent
Azmacort
Asthma/RAD: Medications - Cromolyn
Used in inhaled form for moderate asthma. Not always effective in children.

EX: Intal
Asthma/RAD: Medications - Bronchodilators
Rescue drugs used by all asthma patients. Relieve bronchospasm.

EX:
Short Acting-
Alupent, Albuterol, Ventolin
Long Acting-
Serevent
Cystic Fibrosis:
Exocrine (mucus-producing) gland dysfunction that produces multi-system involvement.
CF: Genetics -
Autosomal recessive trait (child inherits defective gene from both parents).