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302 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What kind of test do you do on nipple discharge?
Cytology
BRCA, CA and CEA are all what kind of tests?
Blood
For a CA 15 antigen test it tests how many?
3
The normal limit for CA 15 is less than ______ u/ml
30
The normal limit for CEA antigen is less than ____ng/l for a non-smoker, and up to _____ng/l for a smoker
5.0
10.0
If you augment boobs, you _____ then
Enlarge
_______ boobs cause back pain, neck and shoulder pain, psychosocial, and emotional distress and fungal infections
Large
Physiological nodularity of the breast containing 3 stages
Fibrocystic Disease
Fibrocystic Breast Disease is most common in women between the age of ____ an _____
20-30
Which stage is premenstraul fullness and tenderness, with symptoms occur on menstraul cycle
Stage 1
Which stage is multiple nodular areas found in both breasts?
Stage 2
Which stage is associated with microscopic or macroscopic cysts associated with pain, tenderness or burning?
Stage 3
Stage 3 of Fibrocystic Disease occurs in ages _____ to ____
35 to 55
_________ is the most common cause of breast masses during adolscence years
Fibroademona
Fibroademona occurs in clients ____ to ____ years of age
20-30
________ is a solid, slowly enlarging BENIGN mass which is round, firm, easily movable, non tender and cleary defined from the surrounding tissue
Fibroademona
A fibroademona is usually located in the ____ _____ _____
UOQ
Upper Outer Quadrant
Most breast cancer is felt as being on the breast ______ and is very hard
Wall
___ of ____ is the most common place for cancer
Tail of Spence
Some nursing interventions for benign masses are:
Symptomatic Management
Hormonl Manipulation
Drug therapy including Vitamins C,E, and B complex
Diuretics
Avoidance of caffeine
Mild Analgesics
Limit salt intake
Supportive bra
Cold/Heat Therapy
The use of diuretics in treatment and intervention for benign masses are to:
Reduce Swelling and premenstraul edema
Ductal Ectasia is a _____ condition
Benign
Ductal Ectasia is usually found in women between the ages of ____ to ____ for women approaching menopause
40-55
Anytime a woman has discharge from the nipples, you have to:
R/O breast cancer
Ductal Ectasia cause a _____-brown discharge from the nipples due to enlarged lymph nodes and edema over the site of the mass
Greenish-Brown
Ductal Ectasia is caused by ______ and ______ of the collecting ducts in the subareolar areas
Dilation and Thickening
A Ductal Ectasia mass is formed that is hard and tender with ________ borders
Irregular
Intraductal Papilloma occurs most often in women ____ to ____ years of age
40-55
Benigh process in the epithelial lining of the duct forming an outgrowth of tissue
Intraductal Papilloma
Intraductal Papilloma is caused by an injury or erosion to the duct which causes a _______/______ nipple discharge
Bloody/Serous
Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma is the most common cause of _______ cancer taking 80% of cases
Breast
What is the #1 risk for breast cancer?
Increased risk w/ older age female
A ___fold increase is a relative with pre-menopausal breasr cancer
3
________ BRCA1 and BRCA2 are individuals with higher risk
Increased
Most ______ females have these mutations
Jewish
Some complications of breast cancer include:
-Invasion of lymph channels causing skin edema
-Metastisis to lymph nodes
-Ulceration of overlying skin
If breast cancer metastic disease happens, these are the common sites where it will effect
Bone
Lungs
Brain
Liver
Breast cancer in men usually presents as a hard, _______, subareolar mass
Nonpainful
Breast cancer in men is often a widely spread disease because it usually is detected at a _______ stage than women
Later
Sudden nipple retraction is very suspicous for _________ _____
Breast cancer
Some physical indicators of breast cancer include:
Left skin dimpling
Right Peau d'orange
Reoccurance of breast cancer with lymph edema of arm
You should do a breast self exam every _______, ______ days after menses
Month
7
When

You should have a mammogram yearly after what age?
40
You should teach the pts to do this before a mammogram:
No deodrant
No jewelry
No lotions or powder
To avoid salt and caffeine
You should start doing monthly breast exams starting at age ____
20
Supranumery nipples are:
More than 2 nipples
There is a _______-mammory ridge which is normal
Infra
_______ examination is the key to dx of breast cancer
Pathologic
_____ ______ (S-phase index) is the # of cells in DNA replication
S-Phase
If there is a prescence or abscene of estrogen receptors or progesterone receptors, ______ cancer may be active
Breast
The growth rate is important for ______ and replication
Metatasis
HER2/neu gene expression is the _________ hormone
Growth
The nue gene expression rates #1 as ______ and #3 as _________
Normal
Aggresive
_________ is when cancer breaks off and moves to other areas of the body
Seeding
For breast cancer at a stage of sx being main treatment, follow up care should include adjuvent _______, _________, ________ _________
Radiation
Chemotherapy
Hormone Therapy
For clients with late stage breast cancer, ___________ treatment may be the only alternative
Non-Surgical
A tumor may be removed with a local anesthetic, but follow up treatment would include _________ _________, ________ and sometimes __________
Hormonal therapy
Chemotherapy
Radiation
Surgical Management for an excision of a mass may be done to ____ the risk for local recurrence
Reduce
When a patient has a sx procedure for a removal or something else, always expect a drain ro reduce the risk of __________ fluid, ___________, _________ and pain
Excessive
Infection
Edema
Anytime after a woman has had a breast or lymph procedure on an affected arm you should never do ______ ________, ______________, or ______ ______ from the affected arm
BP
Injection
Blood draws
After a breast or lymph node sx procedure you should always ________ the affected arm on a pillow
Elevate
You should always tell the patient the imoportance of doing exercises on the affected limb including:
Keeping shoulder straight, move arm up and down, use of a stress ball and wrist movement because this promotes circulation
The purpose of adjucant therapy is to decrease the risk of __________
reoccurance
Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, stem cell transplantation, and targerted therapy are all types of ________ therapy
Adjuvent
________ is a hormonal therapy which decreases the amount of estrogen
Tomacifin
Additional nursing interventions for breast cancer include education. You should always be _____ and _____, and assess the _____ to learn
Clear
Honest
Readiness
Teaching home care includes no _____, _____ or ______
Lifting
Pulling
Reaching
PID can cause the development of _________ that can contribute to infertility and increased risk for ectopic pregnancy
Adhesions
PID is a disorder of the pelvic cavity secondary ti ascending ________ from the reproductive tract
Infection
These are signs of what condition?
Dyspareunia
Cervical Motion Tenderness
Abnormal Discharge
Dx of STI or bacterial infection
Pelvic or Rectal Pain
PID
PID is diagnosed by a _________ exam, culture results and laparoscopy
Bimanuel
Dyspareunia is
Painful intercourse
Treatment for PID includes
Antibotics
Analgesics/ Antiinflammortories
The nursing interventions for PID are focused on _______, and prevention of __________
Medications
Re-infection
Ovarian cysts may occur spontaneously or as a result of _________ of the ovaries and can be from medications like Clomid
Hyperstimulation
Ovarian cysts that contain fluid, tissue, hair, skin, and or teeth are called ________ cysts
Dermoid
Ovarian Cysts occur in any _____ female and are _____ after menopause
Ovulating
Rare
Ovarian cysts are excessive amount of _______ hormone
Luteinizing
Made from outside of the body
Exogenous
Made from the body
Endogenous
The big picture for ovarian cysts are the ______ of fluid, tissue or infective materialkl on the _______ of an ovary
Collection
Surface
Abdominal pain (______ or _____), feeling of fullness or bloating, amenorrhea, severe abdominal pain, tenderness and fever, may be symptomatic are all signs of:
Unilateral or Bilateral

Ovarian Cyst
If a patient is dx with having an ovarian cyst and they are experiencing severe abdominal pain, tenderness and fever, it is a sign of a ______ cyst and this is an EMERGENCY!!!!
Ruptured
DX of ovarian cysts are made by physical exam, client hx and _____ ultrasound
Pelvic
Ovarian cysts can have spontaneous __________ of some cysts may occur
Resolution
Treatment of ovarian cysts include:
Analgesics
Antibotics
Cessation of medication therapy
SX
Removal of a cyst
Cystectomy
Removal of ovary
Oopherectomy
Nursing interventions for ovarian cysts includes:
Comfort measure/ pain relief
Education about condition, medication and follow up and education and referral for treatment of partner and themselves if STI is responsible
Amennorrhea is
Abscene of period
Oligomenorrhea is
Small amount of period
Hirsutism is
Excessive Hairness
Definition of Polycystic ovarian disease is
Enlarged Cystic Ovaries
Stein-Leventhal Syndrome is another name for
Polycystic Ovarian Disease
Anovulatory Bleeding, Hirsultism, infertility, frequent pregnancy losses, cnetral obesity, alopciea, depression, enlarged ovaries and pelvic pain are all S&S of
Polycystic Ovary Disease
When dx polycystic ovarian disase you need to first ______________ any other causes
Rule out
Hypoactive thyroid (normal 0.3-5.0), adrenal hyperplasia, tumor causing androgen excess may all give the same symptoms as
Polycystic ovary Disease
When Dx PCOD, any glucose to insulin ratio less than _____ may indicate the disease
4.5
When diagnosising PCOD, you do a ________ vaginal ultrasound.
Trans-Vaginal
One of the main risk factors for PCOD _________ due to insulin resitance
Obseity
The primary intervention for someone with PCOD is to lose ____% of there body wieght
10%
Main treatment and Nursing interventions for PCOD is ________ and _______ support
Education and Emotional
Estrogen Therapy
Progesterone (10mg po qd for 7 days q 3months)
Oral Contraceptives
Glucocorticoids
Ovarian Wedge Resection
These are all treatments for
PCOD
In PCOD you treat the what?
Symptoms
_______ cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the ovary.
Ovarian
Cancer that spreads from one part of the body to the ovary is _____ considered ovarian cancer
Ovarian
The most common type of ovarian cancer is ______ tumors
Epithelual
These are S&S of what?
Abdominal Bloating
Enlarged Abdomen
Pelvic discomfort
Dyspareunia
Urinary urgency
Changes in bowel habits
Loss of appetite
Unexplained weight loss/gain
Loss of energy
LBP
Ovarian Cancer
In ovarian cancer, symptoms are so vague that this cause _____ diagnosis
Late
If you have an increased _______, you are at higher risk for developing ovarian cancer
BRCA1
What are some risk factors for ovarian cancer?
Family History
Obesity at early adulthood
Hx of ovarian cysts
No Children
Age
Pelvic Exam, CT, PET scan, MRI, expolratory laparotomy and increased CA125 serum tests are all DX for what disease
Ovarian Cancer
The CA125 serum test is similar to what test?
PSA
Stage 1 Ovarian Cancer is _____, while Stage 4 is _____
Early
Late
The CA125 serum test identifies a protein _______ in the serum found in individuals with ovarian cancer
Antigen
The normal CA125 value is less than ____u/ml
34
The main treatment and nursing intervention for ovarian cancer is:
Sx to remove as much of the tumor as possible
Cytoreduction is the debulking of a _____
Tumor
Removal of everything in pelvis including and not limited to all reproductive organs, rectum, bowel and bladder
Pelvic Exenteration
A Posterior Exenteration is when you take everything out, but you leave the ________
Bladder
Radiation therapy can be used in patients that cannot tolerate __________
Chemotherapy
Radiation therapy can cause damage to other _______ structures
Pelvic
Chemotherapy consists of Carboplatin and Paclitaxel and it is given _____ times with 3-4 weeks between each treatment
6
A person with PID or salpingitis is at a risk for _________ pregnancy
Ectopic
Salpingitis is the inflammation of the fallipoian tubes that is often caused by _______ that ascend into the reproductive tract
Bacteria
Salpingitis is a common side effect for untreated _____ and can lead to Sterility
STD
PID and Salpingitis is most common between the ages ____ to ____
16-25
These are all symptoms of what?
Pelvic Pain
Cervical Motion Tenderness
Dyspareunia
Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding
Fever
Abnormal Vaginal Discharge
Malaise
Hx of recent IUD placement
Hx of multiple partners
Positive vaginal culture
PID
You can dx PID by:
Pelvic Exam
Pelvic/Transvaginal Ultrasound
Salpinography
Laparoscopy
Laparotomy
Cultures
CBC
ESR
Elevated c-reactive protein
Treatment for PID include:
Antibotics
Analgesics
Treatment of partner
Removal of IUD
Nursing interventions for PID include TEACHING of:
Medications
Avoidance of sex till symptoms gone
Prevention
Fallopian Tube cancer is the _____ of all cancers and occurs in women over ____ years of age
Rarest
50
Falliopian Tube cancer usually occurs by _______ from ovarian or endometrial cancer
Metastis
Fallopian Tube cancer may result as a complication to what disease?
PID
Hysperosalpingooopherectomy and omentectomy with radiation or chemotherapy is the usual treatment for cancer of the _________ _____
Fallopian Tubes
Lysis of adhesions the
Removal of adhesions
When treating someone with Endometriosis you can perform a lasar ____________
Vaporization
In endometrosis, adhesions occur because scar tissue feeds off __________ because the adhesions bleed along with it
Menstraution
The lining of the uterus grows on extra-uterine surfaces such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries and other pelvic organs
Endometrosis
Menstraution causes _____ tissue and cyst formation on the organs in the pelvic cavity in endometrosis
Scar
Inflammatory response in pelvic region causes development of embryonic cells to grow outside of the uterus is which theory?
Metaplasia
Menstraul fluid backs up through fallopian tubes and enters pelvic cavity is what theroy?
Retrograde Menstraution Theory
Endometrial tissue travels through the lymphatic or vascular space and gets deposited in the pelvic region is which theory
Transplantation Theory
Endometrosis is most common in women of _________ age
Childbearing
If a woman has delayed fertility, this may be a ____ factor for endometrosis
Risk
These are risk factors for ________:
Every Period
Menstraul cycles less than 27 days
Menses longer than 7 days
Relative with the Dx
Women with painful menstruation
Endometrosis
Early menarche is less than ___ years of age
8
If a woman has Endometrosis, you should always check her _____ due to the bleeding
H&H
Assessment for endometrosis includes:
Dysmenorrhea
Rectal Pressure
Dyspareunia
Infertility
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
Treatment for endometrosis includes:
NSAIDS
Contraceptives
Danazol
Sx
Nursing interventions for endometrosis are ______ skills for condition, potential for infertility, medications, pre/post op care, coping and affect on sexuality
Teaching
Leiomyomas are _____ tumors and are identified by location
Fibroid
Leiomyomas are ____ tumors of the smooth muscle of the uterus
Benign
Usually affects women _____ years and older
35
Leiomyomas may be on a projection of tissue or a _____
Stalk
Leimyomas are more common in African American women and __________ women
Premenopausal
Estimate is 1 out of ___ or ___ women get leimyomas
4-5
Leimyomas may be _________ and cause menorrhagia or menometrorrhagia
Asymptomatic
Menorrhagia
Heavy Bleeding
Menometrorrhagia is
Break thru bleeding
Leiomyomas may cause ____ pelvic pain and pressure
Severe
Leiomyomas can cause ____ and ____ complaints including urinary urgency/frequency and constipation
Urinary and bowel
Leiomyomas may cause _____ loss and infertiltiy
Pregnancy
_______ or breakdown of fibroid tissue can cause acute pain
Degeneration
Leiomyomas may cause premature _____ or malposition or malpresentation of baby causing need for c-section
Labor
Dx of leiomyomas are by _____ exams, and client hx.
Dx confirmed by pelvic ultrasonography, ____ or ____ scan
Pelvic
Mri or CT scan
These are treatments for what condition?
Myomectory
Hysterectomy
Embolization
DepoPrevora Shot
Danazol
GnRH antagnoists
Leimyoma
Embolization is when small particles are injected into uterine arteries to sto the blood supply to the fibroids thus ______ the fibroid
Starving
Danazol are androgenic causes masculinizing _______
Effects
An example of a GnRH agonist is
Luron Depo
You can only take Lupron Depo for brief periods of no longer than ___ months at a time
6
Lupron Depo causes a medical _______
Menopause
Lupron Depo can only be used short term due to the effect of long term ____loss
Bone
Lupron Depo is also used for treatment of ______ cancer
Prostate
Nursing interventions for Leiomyomas include TEACHING of what:
Medications
Diet (prevent constipation, increase iron intake)
Danger Signs
Some other nursing interventions for leiomyoma include:
Emotional Support
Post-Op Care
Monitoring lab studies
When teaching post-op care for leiomyoma sx, it includes a _______ which requires a 3-4 day hospital stay with a 6 week recovery period
Hysterectomy
When monitoring lab studies on a person with Leiomyoma, you always assess the
HGB/ HCT
Any patient that is in the lithotomy position, should always be checked for _______ problems
Circulation
Alterations in the normal menstraul cycle and alterations in normal horomonal balance cause an overgrowth in the lining of the uterus leading to ______ cancer
Endometrial
If the woman still has her uterus, she needs to take _____ (Both)
Horomones
Risk factors for endometrial cancer include factors that _____ life long expusure to estrogen
Increase
These factors include
Early Period (before 12)
Late Menpause (after 50)
Infertility
Obseity
Average age of dx of endometrial cancer is ___ years of age
60
These are risk factors for what:
Family hx of disease
Hx of Tamoxifen use
Hx of pelvic Radiaition
Hx of estrogen replacement therapy
Hx of DES expousrue
Diet high in animal fat
Endometrial cancer
_______ cancer is the most frequent dx pelvic cancer in the USA
Endometrial
Slow growing cancers
Adenocarcinomas
Major Danger sign for Endometrial Cancer is __________ vaginal bleeding after menopause
Unexplained
Other Risk factors for endometrial cancer include:
Weight loss
Pelvic pain or mass
Lymph node enlargement
Fluid collection
These are all tests to check and dx what:
Ultrasound
Endometrial Biopsy
Pap Smear
PET scan
Ca 125
Endometrial Cancer
Pelvic Brachytheraphy is
Planting of radioactive seeds
If a pt has had pelvic brachytherapy, the pt will need to be _________
Isolated
Treatment of endometrial cancer depends on the ___ of cancer and includes:
Dilation and Curettage
Hysterectomy
TAH w/lymph node removal
Pelvic Radiation
Progestin Therpay
Chemo
Stage
Nursing interventions for _____ cancer
All perimenopausal and post menopausal women should have annual pelvic exams
Any postmenopausal bleeding should be diagnosised ASAP
High risk groups should have endometrial Biopsy every 2 years
Teach about Medication and community resources
Endometrial
If you have been dx with endometrial cancer, the nurse should teach to patient the importance of establishing good diabetes control and ____ control to prevent occurence
Weight
Bicornate Uterus
Uterus having 2 horns with an indention on the top
Uterus having 1 horn and only 1 fallopian tube
Unicornate
A septum or wall separating the cavity of the uterus into two halves; a cause of recurrent miscarriages.
Uterine Septum
Major concerns for women with structural abnormalities of the uterus is __________
Fertility
Dropping of the uterus into vaginal vault caused by weakened pelvic muscles
Uterine Prolapse
Stretching of ligaments during pregnancy
Increased abdominal pressure
Rapid delieveries
Un-repaired lacerations during childbirth
Congenital wekaness
Loss of tone related to aging
Erect posture
All causes of:
Uterine Prolapse
Classifications of uterine prolapse are based on ______
Severity
____ degree is mild; less than 1/2 the body of uterus in the vaginal canal
First
______ degree is when the entire uterus is in the vaginal canal
2nd
Third degree otherwise known as ________ the entire uterus is outside of the body
Procidentia
Women who have had at least one child have at least one ______
Cystocele
Posterior bladder wall descends into anterior vaginal wall
Cystocele
Anterior rectal wall ascends into posterior vaginal wall
Rectocele
Small intestine bulges through posterior vaginal wall
Enterocele
Treatment for uterine prolapse include:
Pessaries
Surgery
Estrogen
a Colporrhaphy is an _________ repair
Anterior Posterior
Nursing interventions for someone with uterine prolapse are to address possible _____ incontinece that may accompany prolapse
Urinary
Absorbant Undergarments
Limit caffeine intake
Frequent Voidings
Perineal Care
Kegal Exercises
Discuss effect on intmacy
Care and use of pessary
These are all things nurses should discuss with a patient that has
Uterine Prolapse
An abnormal amount of uterine bleeding, occuring at various times during the month and is also used to describe excessively light or heavy menses
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB)
These are all causes of what?
Weight changes
Stress
Malnutrition
Contraceptives
Peri and Post Menopause
DUB
The reason you get DUB is because of a ________ deficiency and anovultion
Progesterone
When trying to dx DUB, you search for the ____ than treat it
Cause
Ultrasounds, thyroid testing, endocrine studies, paps, pelvic exam, CBC and Endometrial Biopsy all have to be performed when ____ is suspected
DUB
Treatment for DUB includes
Meds
SX
Teaching
Support
A person with DUB should take iron pills with vitamin ___ to absorb excess iron. They should also drink a lot of _____
C
Fluids
Some other meds that can be given to DUB pts is
Progesterone
OCP
D&C
Endometrial Ablation
Hysterectomys
Are all sx procduees for _______
DUB
After a D&C you always assess ______ in the lower extermities
Circulation
Destroying the uterine lining with heat
Endometrial Ablationm
Irritation, erythema, excoriation of surface of cervix accompained by vaginal discharge
Cervicitis
Cervitis is usually found during a _____ exam
Vaginal
The cervix bleeds and looks ___ and irritated with abnormal discharge being present
Raw
Cervicitis usually accompaines other ____ infections and can be caused by chemical or other ______
Vaginal
Irritants (ex: douche)
For treatment of Cerviitcis, you need to treat the _____ cause
Underlying
NURSING CARE for cervicitis is centered around _____ client about treatment and ways to prevent reoccurance
Education
If you bleed after sex, Cervical _____ may be to blame
Polyps
Cervical polyps usually occur in women over ____ who have had children
40
Soft, pink, vascular, painless, benign tissue growths inside cervical os and may be peducalated
Cervical Polyps
Cervical polyps may be caused from endocervical __________
Hyperplasia
Cervical Polyps are usually ______, but they must be biopsied
Benign
Treatment of Cervical polyps includes _______ of the polyp
Removal
Educate the client about FU care
Signs of excessive bleeding and infection
Use of external sanitary pad for 1 week
Pain Meds
Nursing interventions for
Cervical Polyps
______ cancer is the #1 killer of women in many countries where routine pap smears are not avvaliabe
cervical
Women who do not have regular cervical cancer _____ on a pregular basis increase there risk
Screening
90% of all cervical cancers are ____ cell carcinoma
Squamouas
Risk for death by cervical cancer is 2x higher for ____ than whites
Blacks
Cervical polyps usually occur in women over ____ who have had children
40
Soft, pink, vascular, painless, benign tissue growths inside cervical os and may be peducalated
Cervical Polyps
Cervical polyps may be caused from endocervical __________
Hyperplasia
Cervical Polyps are usually ______, but they must be biopsied
Benign
Treatment of Cervical polyps includes _______ of the polyp
Removal
Hematochezia
Blood in stool
S&S for ____ cancer include:
Post coital bleeding
Dyspareunia
Referred pain to thighs upper legs and back
Heatochezia/Melena
Anemia/ WEight loss
Cervical Cancer
Weight loss and anemia in a women who has cervical cancer is a sign for ______
Metastis
Paps should be done every ___ years until age 65 or more frequently if test abnormal client has risk factor for vervical cancer
3
Adquency of specimen, severity of cellular changes and presence of infection and this is a way of rating cells
Bethesda System
Cervical polyps usually occur in women over ____ who have had children
40
Soft, pink, vascular, painless, benign tissue growths inside cervical os and may be peducalated
Cervical Polyps
Cervical polyps may be caused from endocervical __________
Hyperplasia
Cervical Polyps are usually ______, but they must be biopsied
Benign
Treatment of Cervical polyps includes _______ of the polyp
Removal
If a pt has cryosurgery (Freezing) they will have a very serious ____ discharge due to cervical cells trying to rejunvante
Vaginal
Cryosurgery
Loop Cone Excision
Lasar Sx
Conization
Hysterectomy/Radial Hysterectomy
Pelvic Exenteration
Pelvic Radiation
All Sx treatments for
Cervical Cancer
Nursing interventions for Cervical Cancer include
Education
Preparation for Sx
Psychosocial Concerns
Vulvar cancer usually effects women between the ages of ___ and ___
60-70
Vulvar cancer presents as an ____ spot on the vulva
Itchy
Risk factors for _____ Cancer are:
Smokers
Hx of melanoma
Lichen sclerosus
Hx of vulvar intraepitheleal neoplasm
Vulvar Cancer
Condition that makes the skin thin and itchy
Lichen Sclerosus
Cause of vulvar cancer is unknown, but may be linked to _____ or _____
Herpes
HPV
Vulvar Cancer may metastasis because of nearby inguinal ____ nodes
Lymph
Pain and vulvar bleeding often indicate _______ disease
Advanced
Radiation is used for ____ metastasis and chemo is used for ____ metastastsis
Local
Distant
Nursing interventions for Vulvar Cancer include:
Diet high in ____ and Vitamin ___
Protein and Vitamin C
Sx for Vulvar Cancer is very ______ and causes extreme pain. The Sc will potentially cause changes in sexual expression and _______
Disfiguring
Sensation
_______ changes during a womens menstraul cycles causes the lining of the uterus to change each month
Hormonal
At the begining of the monlthy cycle, the ovaries secrete _____ which cause the endometrium to become thikcer
Estrogen
If a pt has cryosurgery (Freezing) they will have a very serious ____ discharge due to cervical cells trying to rejunvante
Vaginal
Cryosurgery
Loop Cone Excision
Lasar Sx
Conization
Hysterectomy/Radial Hysterectomy
Pelvic Exenteration
Pelvic Radiation
All Sx treatments for
Cervical Cancer
Nursing interventions for Cervical Cancer include
Education
Preparation for Sx
Psychosocial Concerns
Vulvar cancer usually effects women between the ages of ___ and ___
60-70
Vulvar cancer presents as an ____ spot on the vulva
Itchy
Metrorrhagia
frequent bleeding between menstraul cycle
Menometrorrhagia
Frequent and excessice menstraul periods
Leukorrhea
White discharge
Average amount of _____ is between 25 to 80ml
Blood
30% of all _________ are performed to alleviate heavy menstraul bleeding
Hysterectomy
The onset of the menstraul cycle is preceded by ____ development
Breast
Nursing Interventions for ____ include:
Anticipatory guidance
Menarche
Dysmenorrhea (Primary)
Painful menses
Symptoms of dysmenorrhea are believed to be caused by a release of _____________
Prostaglandins
Symptoms of premenstraul syndrome ____ from woman to woman and may ____ from month to month in the same woman
Differ
Treatment for what conditions are theses:
Meds-GnRH agonist
OCP
Danazol
Progesterone
Antiprostoglandins
Diuretics
Antidepressenats
Pre-Menstrual Syndrome
Nursing Interventiosn for premenstrual syndrome include:
Diet-low sugars caffeine and increase lean protein
Exercise
Application of heat
Relaxation
Aromatherapy
Calcium, Vitamin E and Magnesium
Teach the client with prementsraul syndrom eot keep a symptom ____
Diary
Average age of menopause is __
50
Menopause is caused by a decreased _______ and progesterone levels related to decreased ovarian functioning
Estrogen
Time prior to cessation of menstraulk cycle also called Climacteric
Perimenopause
S&S of _____ are:
Abscene of meses for one full year
Decreased fertility
Vaginal Changes (increased pH)
Changes in fat distrubution and appearance
Skin dryness, hair thinning, decreased breast fullness, shrinkage of ovaries, uterus and vagina
Hot Flashes
Insomnia
Night Sweats
Emotional liability
Menopause
If serologic studies indicate menopause has startewd, it will be greater than ____mIu/m
30
Hot flashes are caused by _______ estrogen levels which cause rapid dilation of blood vessels
Decreased
Treatment for menopause is geared towards treating the unpleasent S&S and potential ____ to health assocaited with decreased estrogen production
Risk
Treatment of symptoms with ______ include:
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Selective Estrogen REceptor Modulators
Complementary Therapy
Menopause
Hormone replacement therapy can be either estrogen and progesterone or just _____ alone
Estrogen
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) are an alternative for preventing ______ and Evista is an example of one.
Osteoporesis
Some complementary therapies for menopause include:
Herbs....
Plant estrogens...
Aromatherapy
Massage
Black Cohosh, Soy, Dong Quai, Ginsing
Beans, tofu, brown rice, corn and orange peels
Nursing Dx for someone who is going threw menopause would be Alteration in _____ experience, self-image and body image
Sexual
You should ____ make assumptionms about the clients feelings
Never