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48 Cards in this Set

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Jericho,(Israel) 8500 B.C.
Permanent village, hunter/gatherers (gazelle), 500 people
Jericho, 7000 B.C.
10 hectares, 1000 people, domestication of animals (goat, sheep). 7500-6500 B.C. wild to domestic animals
Neolithic China. Yang Shao, 5000-3000 B.C.
Well formed after 4000 B.C., regional neolithic, small villages, huts cluster around center
Neolithic China: Agriculture, Herding, Crafts
A: Millet, wheat
H: Pigs, fowl, cattle, sheep
C: Silk, jade, textiles, pottery
Indus Neolithic, Mehrgahr- Indus River Valley, 6500-2500 B.C.
200 hectares, lateral stratigraphy, first evidence of plant and animal domestication
Mehrgahr, Agriculture, herding, crafts
A: simple irrigation farming,wheat, barley, cotton, peas, rice
H: goats, sheep, zebu
C: Pottery, food wheel, mass production
Mesoamerica chronology
1. Archaic (7000-2000 B.C.) Bands to tribes
2. Early-mid formative (2000-400 B.C.) tribes to chiefdoms
3. Late formative (400 B.C.-250 A.D.)state formation
4. Classic (A.D. 250-1000) states
5. Post-classic (A.D. 1000-1521) Empires-Aztec
Mesoamerica, Guila Naquitz
(7400-6700 B.C.)
squash
Mesoamerica, Tamaulipas
(7000-2000 B.C.)
tools of early cultivators (mortars, pestles, manos)
Mesoamerica, Teohaucan Valley
1. El Riego (7000-2000 B.C)
warmth, domestication
2. Cuncatlan (5000- 3400 B.C.) broad domestication, maize
3. Abejas (3400-3000 B.C.) small hamlets
4. Purron (2300 B.C.) first pottery
Features of Mesopotamian societies-earliest settled
Domesticated plants/animals, nucleation, craft, widespread ideologies, social differentiation
Major trends of Mesopotamian societies
filling in of Mesopotamia north to south, simple irrigation agriculture.
From 5500-5300 B.C. in Mesopotamian societies
growth of social complexity, Ubaid becomes Uruk, pre-state chiefdom becomes first state.
Trends of Mesopotamian societies (settlement, economy, integration, social differentiation, ideology)
S: Density and size
E: Specialization and seals
I: Horizon styles for painted pots
SD: burials, secular elite
I: widespread
Ubaid culture (6000-3700 B.C.)
1. Earliest occupation of lower alluvium, or Sumer
2. Base for later states
3. widespread pottery
4. grave goods: beads, pots, neat figurines
Eridu (same time as Ubaid)
1. earliest big town
2. Religion based on water god, Enki
3. Extensive temple sequence (served as storage bins for grains, grew in height and complexity)
Uruk expansion
1. mass production of pottery (3500 B.C)
2. Inception of writing (3100 B.C)
3. Earliest states-precursor to Sumerians
4. Clear hierarchy, first cities
5. Emergence of classes
6. Central institutions
Warka, town in Uruk
White Temple, vase, mass production of pottery, possible standard rationing of grains, sociopolitical organization
Chatal Huyuk (7200-6200 B.C.)
Agriculture, Domestication, Gathered
A: wheat, barley, peas, lentils
D: Sheep and goat, and CLAY
Diet: tubers, apples, pistachios, almonds, acorns
Chatal Huyuk, crafts, tools, lifestyle
C: baskets, textiles, pottery, painted bodies, carved walls, figurines
T: Obsidian mirrors, metal beads, obsidian daggers, paint
L: Went to mountains for food, ate together, ladder to roof for entrance, burial underfloor

T:
Rome, Order of emperors
Gaius Octavius- Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus-Augustus (27 B.C.)
Res Gestae Actium
September 2, 31 B.C.
Deeds of diefied Augustus, written by himself
Republic of Rome
Begins 509 B.C.
Buildings in Rome: Forum
1. center place
2. market
3. trials conducted
4. religious ceremonies
5. entertainment, gladiatory combats
Buildings in Rome: Arch of Augustus
Used as propaganda
Buildings in Rome: Basilica Julia
1. Built by Julius Caesar
2. 44 B.C., Caesar entertains 20,000 Romans with feast
Buildings in Rome: Curia
1. Senate house
2. Rebuilt by Caesar
3. Augustus finishes project
Buildings in Rome: Mausoleo
1. Built by Augustus
2. huge burial site for his family
3. Pictures were realistic, not fanciful (Augustus seen as a symbol of piety)
4. Sundial, obelisk from Egypt
Buildings in Rome: Theatre of Marcellus
1. Seated 12,000 people
2. In Campus Marshes
Buildings in Rome: Altar of Peace
1. 13 B.C.
2. U-shaped altar
3. Reliefs of fertility, sacrifice, Libia (second wife), Tiberias(predecessor)
4. Augustus set up moral laws, very harsh
Buildings in Rome: Forum of Augustus
1. 2 B.C.
2. Surrounded by other famous Roman rulers
Buildings in Rome: Temple of Venus
Statue of Cleopatra
Teotihuacan: Religion
1. Worshipped outdoors
2. Storm Goddess , clothing very significant to stature
3. Captive sacrifice
4. Pallaces
Teotihuacan: Pyramids
1. Pyramid of sun and moon
2. Cave underneath pyramid of sun faces 15 off north axis
3. Number of steps represented days in a year
Teotihuacan: Cultural art/architecture
1. Temple of Quetzalcoatl-hallmark of architecture.
2. Bright colors
3. Ethnic onclaves (house complexes)
4. Pictographio symbols, verge of writing
Classic Period Maya Lowlands
(A.D. 250-900)
1. Only true writing language in Mesoamerica
2. Diety of writing
3. Writings on stelas in Copan tell about dynasties of all Mayan culture.
Copan's ruins- Knich Yax Kuk Mo's tomb
1.Tripod vessels (same as that in Teotihuacan)
2. Circle around eyes, representing rain god Telaluk
3. Evidence of bones shows he came from lowlands, not Teotihuacan
Copan's ruins- wife's tomb
1. Much better reconstructed tomb
2. Same tripod vessels
Copan's Temple of heiroglyphic stairway
1. Longest text in New World
2. Tomb underneath, with predecessors statues
3. Four corners of a center, based on movement of sun
Early social developments of Mesopotamian Neolithic
1. hunting/gathering, start domesticating
2. relatively large sites
3. 200,000 plus for pop.
4. long distance trade for obsidian
5. storage facilities
6. political hierarchies
Archaeological sequence of culture evolution in Mesopotamian area, complete transition
Abu Herera- Syria/Iraq
Chatal Huyuk- Anatolia, Turkey
Jericho- Levant
Why agriculture?
1. increase population
2. climate allowed for this
3. agency (ambitious individual)
4. depends on region
5. difficult to reverse
Cultural Evolution (H-E, P, E&M, PO)
1. Human-Environment Interactions
2. Production
3. Energy and Material flows
4. Political Organization
Conservation Ethic
One should only take small samples of a site because excavating it all would destroy it
City-States, Archaeological study change
Not until 1950's and 60's did arch. study the peripheral sites beyond acropolis
Problem with studying peripheral sites
Most are private property, being destroyed.
Nature of a city
1. death rate higher than birth rate
2. Acted like a sink or trap
Paestum or Poseidonia (600 B.C.E), features
1. Greek foundation in Italy, urbanization
2. laid out city using a plan
3. sanctuaries beyond walled cities
4. depop. due to malaria
5. traded with Etruscans
6. Western coast of Italy