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172 Cards in this Set

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where were potatoes first grown
south america
what was the international year of the potato
2008
how many potatoes produced per year and where is the most
315 million tonnes, 2/9th in China
Where is the potato capital of canada
Vouxhall Alberta
What is the potato song
Spud the bud by stompin tom connors .. the song is about potato delivery from PEI
how much protein is in a potato
no fat, 3g of protein, vitamin a&b, carbs, fiber
why do onions make you tear
lacramere - contains sulphur atom, cut onions under water
how much water protein fat in egg yolk and white, what temps
Y: 50%w, 16%p, 31%f - 71degrees
W: 88%w, 12%p, no fat - 63degrees
Why is yolk of boiled egg green
Iron reacts with hydrogen sulfide to create FeS
What is the natural emulsifier that engages oil and water layers
lecithin - it allows for emuslion: the dissolving of both layers
How should high muscle and high fiber meat be cooked
High muscle cooked for a long time, high fiber dont cook for a long time.

Pink colour at 140 degrees
brown colour 180
what is the meat tenderizer
Papin
name meets in order of water
Fish, chicken, beef, pork
name meets in order of proten
chicken fish beef pork
name meets in order of fat
Pork, beef, fish, chicken
Meat glue
Transglutaminase
- Binds amine group of glutamine w/ amine group of lysine
-commercially called active
Books by Harold McGee
On food and cooking, The curious cook
casien Micells
Where protein is in milk
3 protein types in milk
alpha casein
beta casein
held together by kappa casein
enzyme in calf stomach
chymosin

can buy it as Rennet
Bovine Pepsin
what cows produce when they grow up instead of chymosin
how many types of cheese does france have
365
examples of fresh cheese
cottage and mozzarella
soft ripened
Camember, Brie
Blue Cheese
Roquenfort
semi-soft
Oka
Hard chesse
swiss & cheddar
what makes holes in cheese
propionibacter shermanii
depression and chedder cheese
antidepressants have monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and if they arent there tyramine cant degrade which raised BP
when was cheese first made
9000BC
how old is modern cheese
5000 yrs old
cows milk compiosition
87% water, 5% lactose, 3.5% fat , 3.5% protein
Where is the protein in milk
Micelles
Turophile
cheese lover
Oenophile
wine lover
What did JL Kraft create
Process cheese
JAMA
low fat doesnt cause breast cancer
HERP - Aimes
not everything that is cancer causing is really a threat
where is wine consumption not increasing
France
highest wine per capita
Vatican
wine consumption per capita
Vatican 62L, France 55L, Italy 48, canada 13, egypt 0.05
how any calories in a glass of wine
100 calories, alcohol = 7cal.gram
Antioxidant in wine
Reveratrol
Swedish Twin study
45000 twins, 10,000 had cancer
- stomach cancer had 28% heritability rate,
- low heredity for cervical cancer
- Shared env. 10%
- non shares 62%

-7:3 ration in favor of environment being most important
what causes hangover, what type of alchahol that contribute to hangovers
acetaldehyde. Congers (more colour more congers
what makes acetic acid
Ethanol - acetaldehyde - acetic acid
Retsina
Greek wine - tasted like resin
Vappa
What romans called wine that went bad
Phylloxera
bugs that were killing french vinyards
Most expensive wine ever sold
241,000 chateau lagite -> forbes bought it and it was fake
regions in bordeax
Medoc (red wine), Graves (red and white), pomerol
Sauterines
place where they make wine from rotting grapes
Champagne
10 million bubbles, each grape must be l'epluchage (inspect each grave)
PhIP
molecule with 3 cyclic rings, can slide into DNA and bind preventing DNA from coppying properly
-present in beef and fin fish
Intercalation
when something slides into DNA
champagne classification
amount of sugar added
BRUT -1%
Extra Dry -2%
Sec - 6%
Demi Sec -10%
saccharin
Remsin and Falberg, 1st sweetener
Cyclamate
Sveda, 30x sugar
Acesulfame-K
200X, 10-15mg acceptable
apartame
108x, 7L accepted, cant take if you have phenylalanine
regions in bordeax
Medoc (red wine), Graves (red and white), pomerol
Sauterines
place where they make wine from rotting grapes
Champagne
10 million bubbles, each grape must be l'epluchage (inspect each grave)
PhIP
molecule with 3 cyclic rings, can slide into DNA and bind preventing DNA from coppying properly
-present in beef and fin fish
Intercalation
when something slides into DNA
champagne classification
amount of sugar added
BRUT -1%
Extra Dry -2%
Sec - 6%
Demi Sec -10%
saccharin
Remsin and Falberg, 1st sweetener
Cyclamate
Sveda, 30x sugar, banned in US but ok in Canada
Acesulfame-K
200X, 10-15mg acceptable. combine it with aspartame
aspartame
108x, 7L accepted, cant take if you have phenylalanine
Neutame
10,000x sugar, 50x aspartame, OK for PKV
Splenda
Hough and Phadris, Trichloral sucrose, 600x sweetener
smoking decline
45-50% in WW11, 20% now.

Lung cancer is up 250% in women
how many have cancer in USA and Can
half a million in USA, 50,000 in CAD. In USA half million die a year
Lowest and highest cancer
Hodgkins Japan is loweset (but they are high on stomach cancer), USA prostate is highest.

India had over all lowest
mutagen
changes DNA
Teratogen
causes malformation of embryo. Thalidomine
Carcinogen
causes cancer
metasatasis
tumor breaks up and spreads around body
angiogenesis
allows for tumor to grow
achrylamide
neurotoxin, and possible carcinogen. In fried but not normal potatoes. Regulated in drinking water to 0.5 ppb
absolute risk of cancer in twins
MX 15%
Dz6%
two main cancer causes
1) unbalanced diet (35x)
2) tobacco (30x)
TCDD
agent orange in vietnam war, trees overgrow
cytochrome p540
enzyme that alters molecules, it is the garbage collector of the body, breaks down hydrocarbons and adds hydrogen


Grapefruit juice inhibits it
chance of dying of cancer vs airplane crash
1:3 vs 1:8million
transport deaths
PBjourneys: Bus: 4.3, Motorcycle:1640
PbhoursL Bus: 11.1
PBKm: flight is safest
foods with additives to provide benefits
Neuroceuticals
peroxy radical
free radicals with two 02 on one end. can attack hydrogen atoms and DNA
BHT
in food packaging, prevents oxidation
mRNA
copied from template strand and is identical to coding strand
what does monarch caterpillar eat
Milk weed leaves
stomach cancer and colon for japan
in japan 1311 cases per million ppl. 397 per million japanese in hawaii, 217 per million caucassians in hawaii

stomach goes down, colon up when move to america
What do they eat in swaziland, and how often do they poop
betel nuts - lowers risk of colon cancer. 3-5 times per day with is 3x ITT of normal
What is Metamucil
suppliment of fibre psyllium seeds
finland vs NY fiber consumption
32 vs 14. Stomach bile - 4.6:13.1
diverticulosis
poutches in colon that trap food
PegLyte powder
laxative, cleans the colon
Lupine
has anagyrine in it, goats eat it and it leads to birth defects if you eat the goat
Uric Acid
causes Gout. boa constrictors poo is 90% uric acid
get it from eating meat
how much water to produce 1kg of beef
100,000L of water, 500L for a KG of potatoes
anti inflammatory
ex. Aspirin, can sometime prevent cancer
Quercetin
it is a phenol (antioxidant) in cabbage
Curcumin
gives tumaric its colour, it is a bioflavanoid
- blocks hormone tied with colon cancer
What makes potatoes slippery
Saponins
pepper has...
peperine: which enhances ability of curcumin by 200%
what is the company that studies flvour enhancers
Senomyx
lychopine
precurser for vitamin A, found in tomatoes
delaney clause
if it is tested and bad for animals it is banned
phenylalanine
amino acid group of aspartame. ppl with PKU cant use this so they cant drink diet pop
betty martini
wanted to rid earth of all addititves
said aspartame caused brain tumors
Morando Soffritti
said asprartame wasnt safe but he wis findings were refuted
Hough and Phadnis
created splenda
stevia reboudiana
newest art. sweetener, sold in a little bottle
three crops genetically modified in canada
Corn, Canola, Soya
how much fastfood is fed only corn
100% chicken 93% meat
Vertical Transfer vs Horizontal Transfer
Vertical: exchange genes btw closely related species

Horizontal: enter gene from a foreign organism
DDT
lowered sri lankan malaria from 3 million in 46 to 17 in '63
- Discovered by Paul Muller
- DDT is banned in Canada and the USA now
breast cancer
#1 killer in women, 30% of all new cancers are breast, 15% of deaths
long island breast cancer study
30million dollar project. Wealth was the greatest factor

Fewer children, delayed first pregnancy
refuges
crops not producing BT which surround BT organism field to reduce spread of BT pollon
Conin
poison in hemlock tree kill socchrates
percy shmeiser and monsanto
got sued for using GM canola
precautionary principle
unless you are sure that something is safe, it technically shouldnt be put on the market
Trichograma wasps
can attack eggs of cotton bull worm
disparlure
phermone used to trap insects
androstenol
pharemone released by truffles, similar to pigs
sylvester graham
1st nutritionist, Mr. No, said Abstinance from eveything
copper sulfate
organic pesticide so it can be used on food
organic vs non organic soup
salicylic acid is a bit less in org but it makes no difference
Who wrote fit for life
Harvey and Marilyn diamond
Ann Wigmore
said everyone has a limited suppy of enzymes
chelsey physic garden
london 1673
when interviewing on herbal remedies
40% used in last month, 2-3 different herbs per person, 40% used herbs before going to doctor, 50% didnt inform dr they took it
echanachea
part of clark stanely's famous snake oil, benelyn has it in it
NPN
natural product number.
Shows that product was made in clean lab, standardized compounds, safe products, doesnt need to be proven efficient
ginseng
natural chinese product shaped like body, it is in cold Fx
Saw Pamatto
treats begning prostate hyperplasia
Ginko Biloba
increases mental function, interacts with anticoagulants
Adolphus Hohensee
guy who said sleep with garlic in your anus
how many ginsing supps were contaminated
8 of 22
st Johns Wort
neutralizes cyclosporine
Kava Kava
plant from south pacific, reduces anxiety. It is linked to liver problems which is why it is banned in canada
Ephedra
Mua-Huang, it is in metabolife, killed steve beckler
National health product directory
2004, clean facility, good manifacturing, adverse reaction reporting, labeling, safety. Doesnt have to be effective
Charles Post
grape nut flakes
John Harvery Kellog
father of modern health food
sanitarium at battle creek michigan
fletcherized
chewing something 32 times because we have 32 teeth
elie metchnikoff
studied the bush ppl in bulgaria, thought they lived long because they ate lots of yogurt
probiotics
good bacteria, 2 main bacteria probiotics are Acidophilus and bifidobacteria
Lactobacillus GG
helps cholitis, chrons, IBS
prebiotics
straight to colon, they are the food for probiotics
lactobacilli bifidobacteria
produces short chain fatty acids good for
doctrine of signatures
chinese belief in panacea: the cure for everything
inullin
60 fructose units , prebiotic, there is a lot of it in the jersulem artichoke
Xocatl
it is the azteck chocolate
what produces cocoa
theombroma cocao tree
JS fry
first edible chocolate 1847
henri nestle
swiss, made milk chocolate
Lindt
introduced concling - mixing chocolate
Tobler
toblerone mattahorn mountain and nuget
swiss eat how much chocolate per year
22 lbs
Milton Hershey
tropical chocolate, 35 million kisses, wanted chocolate to be cheaper
Dr. Alfred Stern
made M&Ms by putting air bubble in it
issues caused by chocolate
tooth decay, migranes, heart burn
chocolate is good becasue
rich in antioxidants, alters cough response, lowers blood pressure
le creuset
expensive pot used to make bread
yeast turns carbs into
co2 and ethanol
difference between baking soda and powder
Soda: is sodium bicarbonate
Powder also has monocalcium phosphate
porphyrin ring
usually has magnesium atom but when veggies are heated or canned the magnesium is replaced by two H atoms
Red peppers
have anthocyanins instead of chlorophyl
chlorophenthon
put in DDT to prevent it from being turned into DDE