Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tituba
Was the first woman accused of being a witch during the Salem witch trials of 1692 that took place in Salem Village, Massachusetts. In the late seventeenth century Tituba lived on the island of Barbados as a slave. While Tituba lived on the island she was bought by a man named Samuel Parris to care for his home. She later confessed to witchcraft. Husband John Indian, daughter Violet.
John Proctor
Was a farmer and tavern-keeper in Salem. During the Salem witch trials he was accused of witchcraft, convicted and hanged. 60 years old.

# He was known to be very outspoken and to have a hot temper--traits which did not help him during the trials.
# John was the first male to be accused a witch in Salem.
# He publicly supported and defended his third wife, Elizabeth, when she was accused and tried for witchcraft.
# He was sternly opposed to the witchcraft trials, and was 60-years-old at the time of his arrest.
Betty Parris
Was the nine-year-old daughter of the Salem villages' reverend Samuel Parris and was the first to become ill after being "bewitched". she was sent to live with relatives after which her afflictions seem to have subsided.
Sarah Osborne
Was one of the first three women to be accused of witchcraft in the Salem witch trials of 1692.
She died in prison on May 10, 1692.

Osborne is sometimes referred to as "Goody Osborne", Goody being at the time a simple form of address for old women of lowly social status. She married a prominent man in the community.
Sarah Good
Was one of the first three people to be accused and then convicted of witchcraft at the Salem witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts
She said, “I am not a witch; if you take away my life God will give you blood to drink"
Good was hanged as a witch but not until after the imprisonment of her six year old child for witchcraft, and the death of her infant in prison.
Rebecca Nurse
Her sisters, Mary Estye and Sarah Cloyce, were both later accused for witchcraft themselves. Nurse frequently attended church and her family was well respected in Salem Village. It was later written that she had "acquired a reputation for exemplary piety that was virtually unchallenged in the community," making her one of the first "unlikely" witches to be accused.

She was tried for acts of witchcraft and the jury first returned a "not guilty" verdict, but was told to reconsider, and then brought in a verdict of "guilty."
Giles Corey
He was a farmer and a victim of the Salem witch trials in early colonial America. Held in contempt for not pleading innocent or guilty for witchcraft charges.
One of the major factors which made Giles Corey a prime target was not only his relationship with the rest of the community but also his past encounters with the law, including a prior conviction for murder.
Bridget Bishop
Was the first person executed for witchcraft during the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692.
Reputedly outspoken, flashy in her costume and often unruly in her behavior, Bishop was an obvious choice to be the first person hanged, as her death would cause the least amount of dismay among the public. She was married 3 times.
Cotton Mather
was a socially and politically influential Puritan minister, prolific author, and pamphleteer. Cotton Mather was the son of influential minister Increase Mather. Author of more than 450 books and pamphlets. “A Discoure of Witchcraft” is a manuscript relating to Witchcraft and Persecutions. Suggested prayer as protection against evil and witches are real.
Increase Mather
He was a Puritan minister who was involved with the government of the colony, the administration of Harvard College, and most notoriously, the Salem witch trials. He was the father of the equally influential Cotton Mather. Is credited with being a force for moderation throughout the Salem witchcraft trials and helping bring them to an end with the circulation of his Cases of Conscience on October 3, 1692.
George Burroughs
He was the second Salem Village minister, but quarreled over his salary and left. He was well known for his physical strength. During his trial, witnesses testified that his two dead wives came to them in their dreams explaining that he had killed them.
Samuel Parris
Was the Puritan minister in Salem Village. He maintained a sugar plantation in Barbados where he bought two Carib slave women to tend his household, one by the name of Tituba.

Known as the man who holds the most responsibility for the events that happened in 1692 because of his preaching about the devil.
William Phips
He was the new governor of Salem in May 1962. He appointed a special commission to try the witchcraft cases, but did nothing to stop the witchcraft mania, and suspended the sittings of the court only after great atrocities had been committed. Numerous complaints to the home government resulted in his being summoned to England to answer charges. While in London awaiting trial, he died.
Spectral evidence
Spectral evidence was testimony that the accused witch's spirit (i.e. spectre) appeared to the witness in a dream or vision. The dream or vision was admitted as evidence. Spectral evidence was admitted at the Salem witch trials by the appointed chief justice, William Stoughton.

The Massachusetts House of Representatives finally passed a bill disallowing spectral evidence.
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
German professors who were best known for publishing collections of folk tales and fairy tales.

• Want to preserve the essence of the German soul
• An idealistic effort to capture German folk traditions written largely for academic colleagues
• eliminated some of the gratuitous violence and all obvious mentions of sex
. Ideas were based of idealism and nationalism
Folktale
Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales and customs.

• kept alive through an oral tradition of storytelling
• were not meant for children
Fairy tale
A fairy tale is a fictional story that usually features folkloric characters (such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, witches, giants, and talking animals) and enchantments, often involving a far-fetched sequence of events. In modern-day a "fairy tale ending" refers to a happy ending though there are notable examples and genres of fairy tales that do not end happily. Fairy tales are about wish fulfillment, but they dwell on pain and suffering. Fairy tales offer us a glimpse into the human soul, archetypes of the collective unconscious but are influenced by the historical context in which they originate.
Charles Perrault
Was a French author who laid foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale. Perrault's most famous stories are still in print today. Perrault's tales were mostly adapted from earlier folk tales. Perspective of the bourgeoisie.
Archetype
Is a generic, idealized model of a person, object, or concept from which similar instances are emulated. Archetypes often appear in many forms of literature. Many archetypes in literature have their roots in mythology
Wiccan Rede
“And it harm none, do what ye will” Is a saying that was formulated to sum up the ethics of the neo-Pagan religion Wicca. "Rede" is a word from Middle English meaning "advice".
Pantheism
Literally means "God is All" and "All is God". It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing abstract God; or that the nature and God are equivalent.

• = divinities are immanent in nature and inseparable from nature
• all life is sacred and interconnected
Animism
The term Animism means "soul". In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. In this general sense, animism is present in nearly all religions.


-all things (even inanimate objects) are imbued with a life force
-Reincarnation
-No central organization or doctrine
Abigail Williams
11 years old. After her cousin Betty Parris became ill, Abigail began to exhibit like symptoms. She began to have fits and ran around rooms, flailing her arms, ducking under chairs and trying to climb up the chimney. A local doctor, thought to have been William Griggs, suggested the possibility of bewitchment as the cause. From that point on, the girls were asked to name their tormentors, which they did.
Elizabeth Proctor
# She was John's third wife and married to him for 18 years.
# She was in charge of running the family tavern.
# Since she was pregnant at the time of her condemnation, she was able to avoid execution at her appointed time.
# By the time she had her child, those convicted of witchcraft had been pardoned. Thus, her unborn child saved her life.
Israel Porter
a
Joseph Putnam
a
Mary Sibley
Showed Tituba and her husband John Indian how to bake a witch cake to feed to a dog in order that she and her friends might ascertain exactly who it was that was afflicting them
Salem Village
• An agricultural community settled in 1630s
• ca. 5 miles from center of Salem Town intended to provide the town with food and lumber
• not autonomous, governed by Salem Town, both exploited and neglected by the town
• Poor cousin to Salem Town, mostly farmers
• Boundary disputes with the surrounding towns
• Much more harsh in its Puritanism than the more wordly Salem Town
Salem Town
• fine natural harbor: thriving mercantile community with international trade, prosperous from the start
• Exported: cod, mackerel, furs, horses, grain, beef, pork, ship masts, naval stores to other American colonies, West Indies, Canary Islands, Newfoundland, England
• Imported: tobacco, sugar, cloth, rum
• Merchants became the dominant class after 1660 and amassed the greatest proportion of town’s wealth and political power
• Merchants = internationally rather than locally oriented, capitalist ethic
Illustrious Providence
• God reveals his presence directly: illustrious providences (floods, earthquakes, thunders)
• Each event in nature is an act of divine will
King Philip’s War
King Philip's War was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. Nearly one in twenty persons overall among Indians and English were wounded or killed. King Philip's war was one of the bloodiest and most costly in the history of America.

-Intense hatred of Native Americans(Tituba)
Max Lüthi
• Max Lüthi: direct, clear, paratactical, one-dimensional, unexplored motivations, descriptionless world (Folktales)
Bruno Bettelhelm
He discussed the meaning and importance of fairy tales, such as those collected and published by the Brothers Grimm. He is widely known for his studies of autism. Bettelheim posits that if children are allowed to read about ordeals encountered by the heroes of fairy tales, this will better prepare them for the ordeals that they will encounter in their own lives.
Cone of power
In Neo-pagan witchcraft this is a field of psychic energy or power produced in unison by a coven or group of witches.

Witches usually join hands, frequently within the magic circle, while dancing around and chanting to raise the power. When this psychic power peaks in intensity it is released through the apex to accomplish a goal such as to heal or cast a spell.
Drawing down the Moon
Drawing Down The Moon is a ritual, central to many Wiccan traditions, in which a Goddess is requested to enter the body of a coven's High Priestess and speak through her.
Triple Goddess
Ancient European mythologies, various goddesses appear as a triad, either as three separate beings who always appear as a group or as a single deity and can appear any age they desire.

Maiden, Mother, Crone--all which represent different unique qualities. Some followers of Wicca and New Age religions believe that long before the coming of the monotheistic religions the Triple Goddess embodied the threefold aspect of a Great Goddess.