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61 Cards in this Set

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In tasting wine, what does the term "balanced" mean?
All desirable taste elements are present in proper proportion: acidity, and sweetness, and alcohol content and tannins where appropriate. Note - not all people necessarily prefer a balanced wine.
In tasting wine, what does the term "black fruit" mean?
"Black Fruit" is a catchall term for mixed flavors of black-cherry, blackberry, plum and similar fruit aromas or tastes, where you cannot distinquish which of the above it is more like. This is a common aroma/taste in many good red wines.
In tasting wine, what would the term "black pepper" mean?
"Black pepper" is a fragrant, floral, and distinctively peppery aroma/taste. A trademark of Rhone grapes such as Syrah, also found in Grenache, Carignan, and Petite Sirah.
In wine tasting, what does the term "blackberry" mean?
Tasting like a blackberry, a common descriptor for young Zinfandels.
In wine tasting, what does the term "black currant" mean?
"Black currant" or Cassis in French, is a fruity and herbaceous quality like that of a black currant. It is a taste that is the hallmark of red Bordeaux wine.
In wine tasting, what does the term "blueberry" mean?
"Blueberry" is another specific fruit description. It is not common, but sometimes found in Cabernet Franc wine.
In wine tasting, what does the term "body" mean?
"Body" refers to the overall texture or weight of wine in the mouth. Body is most influenced by alcohol, glycerin and, in the case of dessert wines, sugar. Wines are generally described as light-bodied, medium-bodied and full-bodied. The body of a wine should match the body of the food or its sauce.
In wine tasting, what do the terms "bouquet, bottle bouquet" refer to?
As a technical term, "bouquet" refers to the smells that develop with age in the wine bottle, as opposed to aroma, which encompases the smells associated with the fruit.
In wine tasting, what wines does the aroma/taste of "cantaloupe" make you think of?
Cantalope and other melon flavors are typical of Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Grigio and Chenin Blanc.
In wine tasting, what does the term "chewy, chunky" mean?
"Chewy" or "chunky" is a textural description for a wine so full-bodied that it almost seems as if you could chew it.
In wine tasting, what does the term "acid, acidity" mean?
"Acidity" refers to the tart (or in excess, sour) quality that a wine imparts and that gives the wine a sense of body and structure. Acidity is required for proper balance; too much or too little constitutes a flaw. Wine acids are malic acid (apples), citric acid (lemons) and tartaric acid (tamarind, cream of tartar). Acid generally gives a crisp clean taste. Acidity is measured in terms of light, medium (-), medium, medium (+), and high.
In wine tasting, what does the term "chocolate, dark-chocolate" mean?
"Chocolate" is not a sweet taste but a rich, pleasantly "burnt" or "charred" flavor, usually in robust red wines. In some cases it may be associated with aging in oak barrels.
In wine tasting, what does the term "almond" mean?
"Almond" is a light bitter, nutlike quality sometimes noted in Italian white wines.
In wine tasting, what does the term "anise" mean?
"Anise" is a faint licorice, a pleasant element in some Spanish reds; it may indicate, however, that the wine has been artificially acidified.
In wine tasting, what does the term "citric" mean?
Generic citrus fruit, like lemons, limes, pineapples, etc., a pleasurable element in many white wines.
In wine tasting, what does the term "apple" mean?
"Apple means pleasant apple-fruit aroma, particularly characteristic of Chardonnays made without excessive oak.
In wine tasting, what does the term "clean" refer to?
"Clean" is an aroma condtiton that describes a wine with no unpleasant or "off" aromas or tastes such as cork taint, brettanomyces or oxidation.
In wine tasting, what does the term "closed" mean?
"Closed" means showing little fruit aroma or flavor. It may be a temporary condition in an ageworthy wine that is past its youth but not yet mature.
In wine tasting, what does the term "complex" mean?
"Complex" means containing many elements with none necessarily dominant. Complexity may or may not be delicate or subtle.
In wine tasting, what does the term "corked, corky, cork taint" mean?
Cork taint is always a flaw: Wine afflicted by an undetectable cork fungus (2,4,6-TCA) that imparts an unpleasant musty, damp-cardboard aroma/flavor that tends to obliterate all other aromas and flavors in the wine.
In wine tasting, what does the term "crisp" mean?
"Crisp" means acidic tartness or citrus taste, noticeable but not overwhelming; it is a favorable term, typical of good white wines.
In wine tasting, what does the term "delicate" mean?
Delicate refers to a low level of intensity in terms of body, aroma, with many flavors working together, but not overbearing. If it were a painting, it would be in pastels, not poster paint.
In wine tasting, what does the term "earthy" mean?
"Earthy" is a generic term for a range of aromas and flavors associated with organic qualities like "barnyard," "forest floor," "merde" and "tree bark." It may be associated with brettanomyces (see above) but can also result from oak aging or the nature of specific grapes. Mourvedre, for instance, imparts a characteristic earthy aroma. Again, not necessarily a fault, but "earthy" wines tend to be controversial, and a little bit is usually enough. "Earthy is more associated with European wines than with New Word wines.
In wine tasting, what does the term "finish" mean?
"Finish" is a wine-taster's synonym for "aftertaste", the flavors remaining in your mouth after the wine is swallowed.
In wine tasting, what does the term "floral, flowery" mean?
"Floral" is a general term for a wine with aromas more reminiscent of flowers, perfumey than fruit. The aroma may be very pleasant, especially in white wines.
In wine tasting, what does the term "fruit, fruity" mean?
"Fruity" is an overall description for wines in which the aroma of the grape is the predominant quality as opposed to a lack of any fruit aromas. Fruitiness should not be confused with sweetness.
In wine tasting, what does the term "grassy" mean?
"Grassy" refers to the aroma of freshly cut grass. It is often found in Sauvignon Blanc grown in cool regions.
In wine tasting, what does the term "honey" mean?
"Honey" is a specific flavor and aroma description, characteristic of botrytis affected grapes that have raisinated such as an ice wine but it may also appear as a flavor nuance in dry white wines.
In wine tasting, what does the term "jammy" mean?
"Jammy" means a wine smells and tastes so fruity that it's reminiscent of jam or jelly. It is a term often applied to Zinfandel wines.
In wine tasting, what does the term "leather, leathery" mean?
"Leathery" is another take on "earthy," often found in older reds; it may be a desirable aroma but in concert with other earthy elements, it may also suggest "brettanomyces".
In wine tasting, what does the term "lemon, lemony, lemon-lime" mean?
This refers to specific citric flavors, commonplace in dry white wines, demonstrating why these wines go so well with seafood and fish, just as fresh lemons do.
In wine tasting, what does the term "length" mean?
The time that the "finish" or "after taste" persists in the mouth; generally, the greater the length, the better the wine. The French actually quantify it, using the term "Caudalie," with one unit of Caudalie equivalent to one second of length. Also, "lingering, long".
In wine tasting, what does the terms "light, light-bodied, lightweight" mean?
Another textural description, indicating a wine that crosses the palate without much of a sense of weight or body. May be associated with low alcoholic content.
In wine tasting, what does the term "meaty" mean?
"Meaty" as in "gamey," is a specific kind of "earthy" quality; quite literally reminiscent of raw beef, sometimes found in red Rhones or varietals like Mouvedre/Monastrell.
In wine tasting, what does the term "medium-bodied" mean?
As the name implies, a wine that's neither light-bodied nor heavy-bodied. Because of its middle-of-the-road status, this is rarely worth mentioning in a tasting note.
In wine tasting, what does the term "mineral" mean?
"Mineral is a difficult-to-describe term that may reflect the "stony" character or even chalk-like taste of a Chablis or the trademark flavor of Chateau Haut-Brion. This is usually associated with a terroir of limestone or chalky soil.
In wine tasting, what does the term "mouth-filling" mean?
Similar to "full-bodied," a wine that impresses itself with weight, texture and flavor on the palate.
In wine tasting, what does the term "mushroom-like" mean?
A mild earthy quality, pleasant in restraint, although a musty, mushroomy quality may also indicate a "corked" wine.
In wine tasting, what does the term "musty" mean?
Usually an indication that the wine is "corked", i.e., tainted with the chemical TCA, although some older wines may show an initial mustiness that blows off with time in the glass. Corked wines never improve with breathing.
In wine tasting, what does the term "plum, plummy" mean?
A very common description for black fruit red wines, particularly budget-range reds made from grapes grown in particularly warm climates. Also "country-style" and "spaghetti red."
In wine tasting, what does the term "nose" mean?
"Nose" is a wine taster's term for the overall combination smell of a wine, its aroma (fruit smells) and bouquet (aging smells).
In wine tasting, what does the term "racy" mean?
A particularly approving synonym for "acidic," this one suggesting a wine with a tart-crisp acidic flavor well balanced by fruit in a style that's particularly refreshing.
In wine tasting, what does the term "nutty, nutlike" mean?
Undifferentiated nuts, may be present as a subtle flavor element in any wine or as a predominant characteristic in a Sherry, Madeira or Tawny Port ... or, in a "maderized" wine that's over the hill.
In wine tasting, what does the term "oak, oaky" mean?
Showing substantial influence of the oak barrels (vanillin) in which the wine was aged. This may manifest itself in many forms depending on the wine, the source of the oak, whether the barrels were "toasted" (charred) and whether they are large or small, new or old. Oaky white wines often show such flavors as pineapple and tropical fruit. Oaky reds may show strong vanilla aromas, herbal dill, or spices.
In wine tasting, what does the term "red fruit" mean?
Broad catchall term for red wines with mixed flavors of cherry, red raspberry, and/or strawberry, etc., and quite typical of Languedoc reds, among others. Compare to "black fruit".
In wine tasting, what does the term "oxidized" mean?
"Oxidized is a chemical term for "maderized" or "like sherry", the reaction that occurs when wine interacts with air in the bottle over years (or, more quickly, after the bottle is opened), and turns brown, Sherry-like and unattractive. A controlled edge of oxidation, however, may be normal and even desirable in an old, ageworthy Chenin Blanc for example.
In wine tasting, what does the term "pear" mean?
Specific fruit description, typically associated with Chardonnay aged in toasted oak barrels where its "apple" taste/aroma mellows to a "pear" taste/aroma.
In wine tasting, what does the term "residual sugar" mean?
Technical term for the natural sugar that remains in naturally sweet wines after the conversion of fruit sugars into alcohol. If all the fruit sugars are fermented to alcohol, there is NO residual sugar.
In wine tasting, what does the term "peppery" mean?
Spicy with the fragrant pungence of black pepper. Typical of Rhone and Languedoc reds made from Syrah and Grenache. Also can be "black pepper" or "white pepper".
In wine tasting, what does the term "smoky" mean?
"Smokey" refers to an aroma component in wine that may come from the grape itself (e.g., Petite Sirah) or from barrel aging in which the oak has been lightly "toasted".
In wine tasting, what does the term "smooth" mean?
"Smooth" is a general term referring to the lack of any excessive taste elements like too much alcohol, too much sugar, too many tannins etc., thus all the tastes are favorable and well blended; contrasts with rough, too sweet, too acidic or too astringent.
In wine tasting, what does the term "perfumed" mean?
"Perfumed" is an aroma description which usually reflects a heavy floral quality that may be out of balance.
In wine tasting, what does the term "soft" mean?
A low-acid wine, not tart nor sour nor highly alcoholic. Taken to extremes, it may mean a bland wine that may be palatable, even gulpable; many mass-market wines are consciously made on the soft side.
In wine tasting, what does the term "persists, persistent" mean?
Generally describes the length of a wine's finish or aftertaste, roughly synonymous with "long."
In wine tasting, what does the term "spicy" mean?
"Spicy" is a general term for mixed spices, most often the cinnamon, clove and nutmeg mix typical of some red wines aged in oak and it may also include white pepper, black pepper and ginger.
In wine tasting, what does the term "structure" mean?
Overall term describing a wine's sense of body, largely built on acidity, with alcohol and tannins as additional elements.
In wine tasting, what does the term "tannic, tannins" mean?
Containing perceptible tannic acid, a naturally occurring component in ageworthy red wines that imparts a mouth-puckering astringency when the wine is young but that "resolves" (through a chemical process called polymerization) into delicious and complex elements of "bottle bouquet" when the wine is cellared under appropriate temperature conditions, preferably in the range of a constant 55 to 60 F.
In wine tasting, what does the term "youthful" mean?
"


"Youthful" usually signifies that a wine is immature and needs cellar time to blend and soften the fruit taste and tannins. It may, however, also refer to a wine intended to be drunk young, like Beaujolais.
In wine tasting, what does the term "umami" - pronounced ooo-MAH'-mee, mean?
This a a savory taste in food and wine. In food it is usually associated with glutamates from roasted, smoked, slow cooked meats, fish and vegetables especially tomatoes. Soft non-tannic red wines such as a merlot would exhibit an umami taste.
In wine tasting, what does the term "burning, burny" mean?
"Burny" usually refers to a higher alcohol content wine at 14% or above that "burns" as it is swallowed due to the alcohol.
In wine tasting, what does the term "brettanomyces", "brett" mean?
"Brettanomyces refers to wine contamination with a certain yeast which produces a "mousy", "metallic", barnyard smell with a savory, cheesy character.