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396 Cards in this Set

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Where is Pommard located?
Burgundy
What are the 7 Grand Crus of Chablis?
Blanchots, Bougros, Les Clos, Vaudesir, Valmur, Preuses, Grenouilles
What vineyard in Chablis is located partly in Vaudesir, and partly in Preuses,but is not a Grand Cru?
La Moutonne
Where is the Cote D'Or?
Burgundy: it is the Department name for both the Cote de Nuits and the Cote de Beaune
Where is the Cote Challonaise?
Burgundy
How many, and what are the Grand Crus of Chambertin?
8: Mazis-Chambertin, Ruchottes-Chambertin, Chambertin Clos-de-Beze,
Chapelle-Chambertin,
Griotte-Chambertin,
Charmes-Chambertin,
Le Chambertin,
Latricieres-Chambertin
Where is Pouilly-Fuisse and what does it produce?
Located in the Macconais district of Burgundy. It is restricted to producing whites from Chardonnay
Where is Saint-Bris located?
It is in the Yonne which is located in the Chablis district of Burgundy
Where is Irancy located?
It is in the Yonne which is located in the Chablis district of Burgundy
Where is the Cote de Nuits located?
In Burgundy along the Cote d'Or to the north of the Cote de Beaune
Where is the Cote de Beaune located
In Burgundy along the Cote d'Or to the south of the Cote de Nuits
Where is Macconais?
In Burgundy south of Cote Chalonnaise and north of Beaujolais (which it partly overlaps)
Where is Saint-Veran located?
In Burgundy in the Maconnais
Where would you find Pouilly?
In Burgundy in the Maconnais
What department is Beaujolais located in?
Technically, it is in the Rhone department, but is considered part of Burgundy
What are the 10 Crus of Beaujolais?
Brouilly, Cote de Brouilly, Chenas, Chiroubles, Fleurie, Julienas, Morgon, Moulin-a-Vent, Regnie, Saint Amour
What is the predominant soil type of Beaujolais?
Granitic, schistous limestone in the north and more clay dominated in the south
What is the climate of Beaujolais?
Temperate and Semi-continental
What are the principal villages of teh Cotes de Nuits?
There are 7 from North to South:
Gevrey-Chambertin
Morey-St. Denis
Chambolle-Musigny
Vougeot
Vosne-Romanee
Flagey-Echezeaux
Nuits-St.Georges
What is the largest Grand Cru vineyard of the Cote D'Or? Who founded it?
Clos de Vougeot and it was founded by the Cistercian monks. It is roughly 50 hectares
Where is the Cote Chalonnais located?
In the Saone-et-Loire department of Burgundy between the Cote-D'Or and the Maconnais
How many Grand Cru vineyards are there in Burgundy?
There are 34 of them
What does Grand Cru mean?
It means,literally, Great Growth
Where is Gevrey-Chambertin?
In Burgundy, in the Cotes de Nuits
Where is Montagny?
What does it produce?
It is in the Cote Challonais in Burgundy. It produces exclusively white wine from Chardonnay
What are the 5 village appellations in/of the Cote Challonaise?
Mercurey
Givry
Montagny
Rully
Bouzeron
What is the general climate of Burgundy?
Continental
Where is Rully?
What does it produce?
It is in the Cote Challonais in Burgundy. It produces reds, whites, and sparklings
Where is Givry?
What does it produce?
It is in the Cote Challonais in Burgundy. It produces mostly red from Pinot Noir and small quantities of white wine
Where is Mercurey?
What does it produce?
It is in the Cote Challonais in Burgundy. It produces mostly red from Pinot Noir and small quantities of white wine
Where is Bouzeron?
What does it produce?
It is in the Cote Challonaise in Burgundy. It has it's own appellation for whites made from Aligote
Where is Mercurey located?
In the Cote Challonaise district of Burgundy
Where is Chassagne-Montrachet located?
In the Cote de Beaune district of the Cote d'Or in Burgundy
Where is Puligny-Montrachet located?
In the Cote de Beaune district of the Cote d'Or in Burgundy
Where is Meursault located?
In the Cote de Beaune district of the Cote d'Or in Burgundy
Where is Volnay located?
In the Cote de Beaune district of the Cote d'Or in Burgundy
How many, and what are the Grand Cru's of Vosne Romanee?
6:
Romanee-Conti
La Romanee
La Tache
Richebourg
Romanee-St.Vivant
La Grand Rue
Where is Vosne Romanee located and what is it best known for?
In the Cote-de-Nuits district of Burgundy.
It is known for Great reds from Pinot Noir
What is Chablis made from?
Chardonnay
Where is Chablis located and what Department is it in?
In the Burgundy region, but in the Yonne Department.
What is the usual climate for Chablis?
Semi-continental with NO maritime influence. Long hard winters and often fairly hot summers
Bouchet is a synonym for what? Where is it called Bouchet?
It is the name used for Cabernet Franc in St. Emilion
What are the 6 Commune appellations of the Haut-Medoc?
Saint Estephe,
Pauillac,
Saint Julien,
Margaux,
Moulis,
Listrac
Which Bordeaux areas are the so-called Left Bank?
Medoc,
Graves,
Pessac-Leognan,
Cerons,
Barsac,
Sauternes
Which Bordeaux areas are the Right Bank?
Blaye,
Bourg,
Libournais,
Entre-Deux-Mers,
Pomerol,
St. Emilion
What river are the left bank appellations near?
The Garonne
What river are the right bank appellations near?
The Dordogne
What are the Left Bank appellations?
Barsac
Ceron
Graves
Medoc
Pessac-Leognan
Sauternes
What are the Right Bank appellations?
Cotes de Castillon
Cotes de Francs
St. Emilion
Lalande-de-Pomerol
Fronsac
Bourg
Blaye
What is the most renowned grape for the Left Bank? Right Bank
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
How many separate AOC areas are there in Bordeaux?
What are they?
There are 12:
Medoc
Graves
Pessac-Leognan
Cerons
Barsac
Sauternes
Blaye
Bourg
The Libournais
St. Emilion
Pomerol
Entre-deux-mers
What is the general climate of Bordeaux?
Essentially maritime with some minor variations
What are the minimum alcoholic strengths for AC Bordeaux and Bordeaux Superieur?
generic AC Bordeaux: 10%
Bordeaux Superieur: 10.5%
Is Fronsac a Left or Right Bank Appellation?
Right Bank
Where is the Haut-Medoc?
Bordeaux - Left Bank
Where is Graves?
Bordeaux - South East Haut Medoc
Pessac-Leognan is situated within it
How many, and what are the communes that are entitled to the Sauternes Appellation?
There are 5:
Sauternes
Barsac
Preignac
Bommes
Fargues
How many, and what are the communal appellations of the Haut Medoc?
There are 6:
St. Julien
Margaux
St. Estephe
Pauillac
Moulis
Listrac
How many First Growths are there in Pauillac?
What are they?
There are 3:
Ch Lafite Rothschild
Ch Latour
Ch Mouton Rothschild
What is another name for First Growths in Bordeaux
Premier Crus
Where is Pauillac?
Bordeaux between St.Estephe to the north and St.Julien to the South
Where is Entre-Deux-Mers?
What does it mean?
Bordeaux, between the rivers Dordogne adn Garonne.
It means between two seas
List 5 excellent Chateaux from Pomerol
Petrus
Lafleur
Le Pin
La Conseillante
Trotanoy
La Fleur de Gay
Latour-a-Pomerol
L'Eglise-Clinet
Clinet
How many, and what are the communes that are entitled to the Sauternes Appellation?
There are 5:
Sauternes
Barsac
Preignac
Bommes
Fargues
How many, and what are the communal appellations of the Haut Medoc?
There are 6:
St. Julien
Margaux
St. Estephe
Pauillac
Moulis
Listrac
How many First Growths are there in Pauillac?
What are they?
There are 3:
Ch Lafite Rothschild
Ch Latour
Ch Mouton Rothschild
What is another name for First Growths in Bordeaux
Premier Crus
Where is Pauillac?
Bordeaux between St.Estephe to the north and St.Julien to the South
Where is Entre-Deux-Mers?
What does it mean?
In Bordeaux between the Dordogne and Garonne rivers.
It means between two seas
List 5 or more excellent Chateaux from Pomerol
Ch Petrus
Trotanoy
Clinet
Le Pin
Lafleur
La Conseillante
La Fleur-de-Gay
Latour-a-Pomerol
L'Eglise-Clinet
Where is Pomerol located?
In Bordeaux-Right Bank
What are Pomerol's reds made of?
Merlot
Where is Sauterne located?
In Bordeaux in the Graves district
Where is the Medoc?
In Bordeaux on the Left Bank
Where is Margaux located?
In the Medoc region of Bordeaux
What are the major grape varieties of Bordeaux
Reds: Cab Sauv, Cab Franc, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Carmenere
Whites: Sauv Blanc, Semillon, Muscadelle
What are extra sec, demi-sec, and sec champagnes?
The sweeter champagnes
How is/can rose champagne be produced?
2 ways: by blending a little white and red wines, or as is traditional with other rose's, thru skin contact
What is a non-dosage champagne?
One without added dosage or liquer d'expedition which normally contains some sugar
What is Coteaux Champenois AOC?
An AOC in Champagne for red, white, and rose wines that are still
What is Rose des Riceys AOC?
An AOC in Champagne devoted exclusively to pink (rose) wines made from Pinot Noir. The AOC in in the Aube department
Describe NV Brut
Classic Champagne made from a blendof the latest vintage and anywhere from 10-15% to up to 40% reserve wines. Blending is the key
Describe Vintage Brut
self explanatory
What is a Blanc de Blancs Champagne
One made entirely from Chardonnay grapes
What is a blanc de Noirs champagne?
One made entirely from black grapes, either Pinot Noir, or Pinot Meunier or a blend of the two
What is the transfer method know as in the US? France?
Carstens
Methode transfert
What is tirage?
It is what the French call the adding of sugar and yeast to the blended base wines in order to provoke a second fermentation for champagne
What are the 5 major districts of Champagne?
Montagne de Reims
Cotes des Blancs
Vallee de la Marne
The Aube
Cote de Sezanne
How many and what are the wine styles of Champagne?
11:
Nonvintage Brut
Blanc de Blanc
Blanc de Noirs
Extra Sec, Demi-Sec, and Sec
Rose
Non-Dosage
Cuvee de Prestige
Vintage Brut
Single Vineyard
Coteaux Champenois AOC
Rose Des Riceys AOC
Who developed teh formula that enabled wine makers to know how much sugar is required to induce secondary fermentation?
Andre Francois
What are the 3 permitted grape varieties for Champagne?
Pinot Noir,
Pinot Meunier,
Chardonnay
Define Pupitre
It is the French name for a hand riddling rack
Who is credited with the development of Remuage? What is it?
Nicole Barbe Ponsardin-Cliquot
French word for shaking, which refers to the process of riddling here
What states and what AVA's are included in New England?
From north to south the States are:
Maine
New Hampshire
Vermont
Massachussets
Connecticut
Rhode Island
The 2 AVA's are:
Western Connecticut Highlands
Southeastern New England
Where was the 1st successful commercial vineyard in the US?
On the Ohio River in Indiana, on land donated by Thomas Jefferson
Where did many/most of the rootstocks which halted Phylloxera come from?
Missouri, as suggested by C.V. Riley
Zinfandel is the same grape as what from Italy?
Primitivo
What was the first AVA in the US?
Augusta, Missouri in 1980
Where and what is the name of the oldest winery in the US still in operation?
Brotherhood America's Oldest Winery, LTD
estab: 1839 in the Hudson River Valley of NY
Who first planted Pinot noir in Oregon?
Where?
When?
David Lett of Eyrie Vineyard
at the north end of Willamette Valley in 1966
In CA, Mataro is a synonym for what
Mourvedre
When were the first Vinifera vines planted in WA, and where?
in 1871 in Yakima Valley
Who said; "The poor Italian and Russian peasants with their shovels can do it, but the American farmer with his push-button tools cannot"?
What were they referring to?
Konstantin Frank, a Ukranian viticulturist,in reference to the lack of vinifera vines being grown in NY State
What are the main varieties used in Hermitage for red and white?
Syrah and up to 15% Viognier for reds
Whites are typically dominated by Marsanne along with Rousanne
Where is Hermitage?
Northern Rhone, on the east bank of the Rhone river
Wher is/are Condrieu and Ch Grillet located and what are they?
Located in Northern Rhone
2 small appellations devoted to white wine based on Viognier
Where is Cote Rotie located and what are it's major producers?
Northern Rhone
Guigal, Chapoutier, Rene Rostaing, Domaine Clusel-Roch and Delas-Freres
What are the minor grape varieties of the Rhone?
Red:
Counoise, Muscardin, Terret Noir, Vaccarese
White: Bourbelenc, Clairetty Blanche, Picardin, Picpoul
What are the principal grape varieties of the Rhone?
Red: Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Cinsault
White: Viognier, Rousanne, Marsanne, Grenache Blanc
Define Cepages
French term that simply means vine varieties
Define Liquoreux
It is a french term meaning syrupy sweet, used for very rich, often Botrytized wines that are markedly sweeter than moelleux wines
Define encepagement
The mix of vine varieties planted on a particular property
Define Moelleux
French term that means literally like bone marrow, or mellow. These wines are usually medium sweet rather than very rich botrytized wines
What is Millerandage?
Abnormal fruit set shown by the presence of large and small berries in the same bunch
What is Coulure?
French term referring to poor fruit set in which soon after flowering some of the small berries fall off
What are the 2 Departments contained within Alsace?
the Bas Rhin in the North and the Haut Rhin in the South
In Alsace, Auxerrois is what?
A minor white varietal know as Auxerrois Blanc de Laquenexy
Can either Vendage Tardives or Selection des Grains Nobles wines be Chapitalized?
No
What are the permitted varietals for Vendage Tardives and Selection des Grains Nobles wines?
Riesling, Muscat, Gewurtztraminer, and Pinot Gris
What are the main varietals planted in Alsace?
there are 10:
Rieling, Gewurtztraminer,
Muscat, Pinot Gris,
Pinot Noir, Pinot Blanc,
Chasselas, Sylvaner,
Chardonnay, and Auxerrois
Where is Montlouis AC
Loire
Negroamaro is the main grape variety in
Salice Salentino
What characteristics does wine aged in new Oak exhibit?
Vanilla flavor, wood tannin, oxidation
The vine disorder that causes leaves to turn yellow is...
Chlorsis
What is Pomerol AC?
Red wine producing region on the right bank of Bordeaux
What is enrichment?
adding concentrated grape juice to the must
What are nematodes?
wormlike animals who feed on the roots of vines
Another name for Cognac is..
Charentais
Taurasi DOCG comes from which region in Italy?
Campania
Which acid is most abundant in grapes?
Tartaric
Is Cab Sauv prone to rot? why or why not
No, thick skins
In the 1855 Classification what status was given to Montrose, Pichon Longueville, and Cos d'Estournel?
Deuxieme cru status
Bonnes Mares AC is in...
both Morey St.Denis and Chambolle Musigny
What is Menetou-Salon?
white and red wine producing region in the Loire
What are the following: Brix, Baume, and Oechsle?
scales for measuring grape sugars
Ethyl Alcohol vaporizes at what temperature?
78.5 C/ 173 F
Bonnezeaux is made from what grape?
Chenin Blanc
What kind of still makes a purer product? pot or continuous
Continuous
Which still can be used for any alcohol? pot or continuous
Continuous
Which wine is made from the same grape varieties as Amarone?
Bardolino
What type of wine is Monbazillac AC?
Sweet white wine from SW France
VSOP Armagnac can not be less than _ years old
5
VSOP Cognac can not be less than _ years old
6
Garganega is the primary grape variety in...
Soave
Cortese is.....
white grape variety perdominantly from Piedmont
Which wine is DOCG: Chianti, Chianti Classico, or Chianti Rufina?
all of them
Montagny AC is what type of region and what grape is used?
White wine only from Chardonnay
What is aspersion?
Technique used to combat frost - especially in Chablis
What type of barrel is used in Burgundy?
Piece
Where is Pommard?
Cote de Beaune
Cahors AC stipulates at least 70% Auxerrois also known as...
Malbec
What type of soils are mostly in Banyuls?
Sandy
What is Brunello?
a clone of the Sangiovese grape
Lungarotti is an important wine family in what region?
Umbria
What is loam?
soil type
What is Jardin de la France?
a regional vin de pays
What type of wine does Jurancon produce: dry or sweet?
Both
Where is Fixin?
Cote de Nuits south of Dijon
What region would you find Lambrusco in?
Emilia-Romagna
Claret is an English term for..
all red Bordeaux wines
Where is Montlouis AC
Loire
Negroamaro is the main grape variety in
Salice Salentino
What characteristics does wine aged in new Oak exhibit?
Vanilla flavor, wood tannin, oxidation
The vine disorder that causes leaves to turn yellow is...
Chlorsis
What is Pomerol AC?
Red wine producing region on the right bank of Bordeaux
Where is Chinon located
Touraine region of the Loire
Where is Ch Cheval Blanc, and what grape is planted there?
St Emilion, cab franc
Which is a monopole: Clos de Vougeot, Romanee-St-Vivant, Richebourg, or Romanee Conti
Romanee Conti
What is a recolant?
person who harvests grapes
Which app has a maximum alcohol level: Ch-de-Pape, Chablis, Muscadet, or Montagny?
Muscadet
How many acres in a hectare?
2.5
What wine region makes Nero d'Avola into a varietal wine?
Sicily
Which is most affected by canopy mgmt: micro, macro, or mesoclimate?
Microclimate
Where is Ch Palmer located?
St-Estephe
Cinqueterre is a white wine from ....
Liguria
Where is St. Peray?
Northern Rhone
What is Pigeage?
French term for an action that leads to the extraction of color and tannins in red wine
What is Brachetto d'Acqui
Sparkling red wine
What does the term "super second" mean?
the best performing wines ranked as 2nd growths in the 1855 classification
What grape is Vin Jaune made from?
Savenienne
Which is not a pomace brandy: Grappa, Marc, or Fine?
Fine
Which is a Grand Cru:
Puligny Montrachet, Batard-Montrachet, or Chassagne-Montrachet?
Batard-Montrachet
What is sulfur used for?
Disinfectant, antioxidant, preservative
What is maceration?
length of time liquid is in contact with grape solids
Where is Aglianico del Vulture DOC?
Basilica
Talk briefly about the history of restaurants
Complimentary food from hosts table. Best chefs employed privately. French revolution and guilds changed all that
Monsieur Boulanger first rest.
Antoine Beauvilliers: La Grande Taverne de Londres first to have a menu
First French book to organize restaurants into classes:
Voyages Gastronomiques au pays de France by J.A.P. Cousins
Describe service a la Francais
3-4 courses with several dishes per course placed down the center of the table. Ornate. Guests served themselves
Describe service a la Russe
Dishes were plated by Maitre d'. served from left, wine from right, first drops to the host
Describe service a la Anglais
server serves each guest from a platter from left side
Describe service a l'assiette
1960's, todays style of service
American contributions to restaurants: (3)
cafeterias, drive thru's, and fast food
What does Sommelier mean?
Beasts of burden, employed by nobles, monitored food, wine, etc deliveries. Could also have been applied to monks
Service procedure for sparkling wines
ID Host
Introduce self/offer assistance
get order
repeat order
remove empty stemware, ask about removing partials
prepare mise en place: bucket with ice and water, 2 clean napkins, small plate, coaster, corkscrew, sommelier tasting glass, correct stemware
Bring glasses to table in left hand
place stemware on right starting with oldest woman = host is last
bring bkt, 2 napkns, spklg to host's right, wipe off and present accordingly (wipe first)
get approval, then back in bucket with napkin over
remove foil, inspect, on plate
remove cage and put on plate
open, twisting both with napkin over and bottle facing away from guests
place cork on plate, inspect
Show host if requested
wipe lip of bottle
remove bottle and pour somm taste- assess/evaluate mousse, etc
offer taste to host from right
if refuse or not, pour accordingly with oldest female first
label up, don't twist when pouring
wipe after each pour
back in bucket, coaster on table
remove tasting glass, plater with foil etc
Steps for white wine service
Remember don't rotate bottle when or tip when cutting foil
Clean bottle
worm in at slight angle
remove cork with fingers near end and wipe bottle again
Check if leave bottle on table or back in bucket
Decanting techniques
prepare mise en place and bring to table ***with lit cndle
present wine to host in basket
leave bottle filthy, but readable
prime decanter with neutral wine and pour into tasting glass
Have lit candle at side (*****should already be lit)
cut foil in one piece, inspect
clean bottle, open, check cork, clean bottle again
decant into somm glass and host glass
assess and present to host
discuss decanting method
gentle for sediment, quick for aeration
decant in one pour, no drips
position candle near neck
pour everyone, ask host if you can remove their glass
remove mise en place, leaving bottle in basket on a napkin, with decanter next to it.
Don't blow out candle near table
decanting if bottle stored vertically
decant before your and host's assessments
What does mise en place mean
everything put in it's place
what are kwervi
clay jars with crushed grapes in them buried in the earth to ferment. Rebottled in the spring
How were early wines protected from spoilage
resinated
Where was vinifera vines origins believed to be
Transcaucasia (Georgia and Armenia)
Greek influence on wine:
growers and traders.
democratized wine
typically sweet, dried in sun, picked fully ripe
add water, spices, herbs, etc
stored in amphorae (clay jars)
Greek God of wine
Dionysus
Roman God of wine
Bacchus
What does Oenotria mean
Land of staked/stalked vines
Etruscan contributions to wine
trained vines up trees, vs Greeks down low
Roman contributions to wine
Found certain vinyds/vintages to be of differing quality
wines typically sweet and diluted
imported wines
planted in Gaul: along rivers, trade routes, on Rhine
published books on viticulture, matched grapes to sites
developed the wine press
fermented in clay vessels
reduced/concentrated must by boiling
aged some wines and intentionally oxidized
smoked
shift to drier styles, reds were for the poor
What is Falernian
first famous Roman wines
What is Islam's view on wine
It is banned since Mohammed's death
What did Charlemagne give to the Abbey of Saulieu in 775?
The hill of Corton
How did monasteries use wine?
for income, and sacrament
Two most influential monastic orders, which is considered most important?
Benedictines and Cistercians
Cistercians - viticultural studies
When did Madeira begin?
1419
When did cultivation in Mexico begin,and with what grape?
1520, Criolla (aka Mission)
Who brought the grape to the US, to what state, when, and how did it fare?
Hugenots, Florida, 1560's, Pierce's disease destroyed it
What was the first vineyard in South Africa and who established it?
Constantia, based on Muscat, the Dutch
Where did Viticulture in Australia start?
Hunter Valley
What major development for wine happened in the 17th Century
Development of cork and bottle created by Sir Kenelm Digby
When did Phyloxxera hit France? How was it corrected?
1850's in Southern France
first symptoms 1863
Bordeaux in 1872
grafting
Who aided French in combatting phyloxera?
Thomas Munson
How is downy mildew combatted?
Bordeaux mixture
What is piquette?
refermented wine - water and beet sugar added to pomace after pressing
think fraud
What did phyloxera due to French mkt?
Turned it from an exporter to an importer of wine
Who exported wine to France in early 1900's?
Algeria and Italy
with Carignan, Aramon, and rupestria
What is Declaration de Recolte?
forced growers to submit stats on how much wine made each year, how much held in stock. Done for fraud reasons
Also how much sugar used for Chapitalization, and provided a legal definition of wine-exclusively made from the alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes or grape juice
What was the Volstead Act?
USA, 18th amendment bringing prohibition in 1919
In France, what 2 problems did the gov have?
What to do with nasty wine, and how to combat fraud
What are in France was the first to organize growers? Second?
Chablis, Medoc
Who was Joseph Capus?
The father of the AOC
place alone wasn't enough, soils, vine varieties also mattered
What foodstuff influenced later wine laws?
Roquefort - whether to use ewe or cow milk in production
Who was Baron Le Roy de Boiseaumarie, and what was he famous for?
owner of Ch Fortia
defined 13 varieties of Chneuf de Pape, cultural practices, pruning, max crop size, ripeness of grapes, and forced some uprooting of vines
What was Comite National des Appellations D'Origine?
precursor to INAO
What were the first AOC regions?
1936: Chateauneuf de Pape
Cassis (in Provence)
Arbois (in Eastern Mtns)
What did stainless steel tanks due for winemaking?
hygeine, make white wines in warm climates, temperature control, retains fruit flavors
List some modern vinification improvements
development of yeast strains, control of MLF, Reverse osmosis, cryo-extraction devices, irrigation technology, glassware, clonal selection
What is selection massale?
clippings from many vines
What are the Dijon Clones in Oregone?
114,115,119
What is Macroclimate?
climate of a large region
What is Microclimate?
Smallest unit, a single vine,or space between vines, or climate within a single vines canopy
What is a mesoclimate
subregion, group of vinyds, sgle vinyd, typically created by surrounding natural features (body of water, slope)
Describe degree days
Amrheim and Winkler
refers to useable heat between April 1 and October 31
Name a problem of degree days
didn't consider teh affects of wind
How are degree days calculated?
Monthly averages of excess over 50 times # of days in month
How many zones in Degree days, which is coolest/hottest?
5, Zone 1 coldest (<2500), Zone 5 hottest (>4000)
What are the best Zones for grape/wine production?
Zones 2 and 3
What Zone is for grape production (think degree days)
Zone 5
Effects of sunshine on grapes?
phenolic ripening
pigment ripening
Effects of wind on grapes?
Dry grapes, blow away pests
Effects of temperature on grapes?
optimum for vine growth- 23-25C
warm - incr. sugar levels
Effects of rain on grapes?
dilution
to be at best= only 27 inches/season
What type of soil is the best?
well draining overall, except in places like Jerez
What does DINKS mean?
Double income no kids
refers to very fertile soils producing lots of leaves and shoots/ vs grapes
In terms of topography, what can influence mesoclimates?
bodies of water, mountains, contours
What does altitude help to do?
preserve acidity
What are alluvial fans made up of?
slope wash - think Rutherford Valley
What problem affects sloping sites?
erosion
What is terroir?
"all things contribute"
mystical union of soil, vine varieties, climate, mesoclimate, vinification/cultivation methods, soul of winemaker
At what year does a vine start to produce grapes?
between 3-g yrs of age
When does a vines yield begin to decline?
between 20-50 yrs, but their is improved fruit quality
How was phylloxera corrected?
grafting vinifera scions onto American rootstock
What are the two types of grafting? which is most common?
field and bench, bench
Name some types of grafting
saw cut, omega (think shoulder joint), whip and tongue, centre "v", bud graft "Mayorquine", bud graft "Cadillac"
Who was the father of canopy mgmt?
Richard "Dick" Smart
Main difference between cane and spur pruning, which is harder
the length, cane
What negative factor does irrigation do?
raises salt levels
What's aspersion?
spraying leaves to combat frost
What is the irrigation area in Australia know as?
MIA_ mirribigin irrigation area
What is the most common type of irrigation
Drip - not wasteful
sometimes coupled with RDI - regulaed deficit irrig.
As sugars ripen,what decreases?
Acidity
When is the best time to harvest?
When Brix and Acidity cross
Name some issues for organic producers
state of soil, use of natural compost, dangers of chemicals, methods for controlling pests, diseases
Where is biodynamics being used?
Burgundy, Dom. Leroy
Ways to protect from frost
Aspersion, burning fuel, high trellissing in cool areas, wind machines, helicopters, aspersion
2 tons/acre = ? hl/ha
35 hl/ha
17 is the multiple
as yield decreases, what happens to price
usually increases
Two types of harvesting:
hand vs machine
Benefits of hand vs mechanical hvsting
expense, selection, time
What is Phyloxera?
a louse that feeds on vine roots, injecting a poison into the vine's vascular system.
Remember AXR1
What is the treatment for phyloxera?
none, grafting is preventative
What is Pierce's Disease?
Treatment?
Bacterial infection, spread by glassy winged sharpshooter, bacteria multiplies in vines vascular system starving it
breeds near water
no treatment
What's Botrytis Cinerea also know as, how is it treated?
Gray Rot, let's water escape, treated with sulfur
What is Bouley Bordolaise?
Bordeaux mixture of copper sulfate, lime sulfur, and water
Other names for Noble Rot
Edelfaudin, azule, muffa, noble, pourriture noble
What is Oidium?
powdery mildew, attacks leaves and berries, treated with sulfur
Name some weather related problems
frost, drought, hail, coulure
What's coulure
improper flowering, dropping of blossoms
after flowering, dropping of berrie3s
What's millerandage?
abnormal fruit set typically caused by poor weather at flowering
list 2 types of fruit reception
hand or machine harvesting
what is triage?
sorting of fruit
types of presses?
bladder aka pneumatic, or basket
major difference between red and white wine making
point when pressing occurs
for white wine making, when does pressing occur?
before fermentation
why should must be chilled and sulfured before pressing?
to avoid early start to fermentatiion, and oxidation
whole bunch pressing is used in the production of what type of wines?
Sparkling
What types of yeast are used in wine making?
ambient/wild, cultured, or both
why are cultured yeasts added?
so you don't get a stuck fermentation, to speed up fermentation, if wine has been filtered prior to fermenting
at what temp should white wine be fermented?
cool: 10-20 C
What temp should red wine be fermented?
warmer temps: low 20-30's C
fermenting a wine to dryness is quicker at what type of temperature?
warmer
what risk do you run at fermenting white wine at warmer temps?
burning off fruit flavors
What are the 2 basic types of fermentation vessels?
inert and reactive
for light/aromatic whites, it's best to ferment in what type of vessel?
stainless steel tanks
Why ferment in stainless?
hygiene, easily cleaned, temp control, re-useable, less expensive than barrels in the long run
list some inert vessels
cement, glass, old wood lined with glass or tartrate crystals
What do reactive vessels do?
impart flavors into the wine
name some influences of fermenting in oak
new or old, toastiness
drawback of using barrels
sterility issues, no temp control, more small vessels to watch over, negative oxidation, expense, labour, leakage, evaporation
what types of corrections can be used for white wine?
chapitalization and acidification
what is chapitalization?
Chaptal: Napoleans agric minister
add sugar to must to increase the amount of fermentable sugar hence raisning alcohol levels
regulated
allowed in cool areas where theres difficulty in ripening grapes
added at the beginning of fermentation usually
types of "sugar" for chapitalization
beet, cane, concentrated must, or grape must
what is acidification?
common in warm climates
strictly regulated
adding acid to wine prior to fermentation usually
Types of acids used in acidification
citric, tartaric, malic
what type of acid is most used for acidification?
tartaric
What's MLF
conversion of harsh malic acid to softer lactic acid and CO2 by leuconostic oenos bacteria
takes place with or after primary fermentation
what slows down mlf?
high alcohl and sulfur levels
variety most associated with MLF?
Chardonnay
are aromatic grapes associated with MLF?
rarely
what is battonage?
lees stirring
issues of maturation of wine
types of vessels, duration, lees contact, flavour enhancement
what does time on lees impart on a wine?
creamy, bready flavours of the yeasts
name 2 types of finishing of white wines
fining and filtration
what is fining?
removing suspended particles in wine
list types of fining agents
albumen, bentonite clay, isinglass, gelatin, casein
what is filtration and what are the two types?
stabilizes wine against a particular kind of deposit
depth and surface filtration
What is cold stabilization?
optional step for high volume brands used to pre-empt possible formation of tartrate crystals, largely cosmetic
types of blending
during pressing, after fermentation but before fining
diff varieties, diff vineyd sites, diff areas of same vinyds
What is most essential during bottling?
sterility
list some types of stoppers
natural cork, agglomerated corks, synthetic corks, glass, stelvin screw caps, crown caps
briefly outline red wine production
reception of fruit
crushing/destemming
prefermentation treatments
fermentation and temp control
pressing
MLF
clarification
maturation
blending
finishing and bottling
list types of must concentration
saignee- bleeding off a portion of juice common in vintages with rain at harvest
boiling down juice - less common
reverse osmosis to remove water
why must a winemaker have access to red wine during fermentation?
keep cap moist to prevent harmful bacteria to build up if it dries out
what type of yeast is common for red wine fermentation and why?
wild/ambient due to skins
why are cultured yeasts useful
predictable in terms of fermentation temp, require specific nutrients, etc
what does the cap do?
protect the wine from oxidation
what is pigeage?
punching down of the cap to keep it moist
what is remontage?
pumping wine from the bottom of the tank over the cap to keep it moist and submerged
2 types of modern improvements to pigeage and remontage
screens to keep cap down and roto-fermenters
post fermentation, what happens to the cap
it sinks, the wine must be chilled, sulfured, close tanked to protect from oxidation
what is vin de goutte?
free run juice, juice racked off the skins after fermentation
what is vin de presse
the press wine
difference between vin de goutte and vin de presse
goutte is fruitier andn finer vs presse is tannic and bitterer and darker
what can press wine be used for
blending with free run juice, topping off, lesser wines, sold
what is battonage?
lees stirring
issues of maturation of wine
types of vessels, duration, lees contact, flavour enhancement
what does time on lees impart on a wine?
creamy, bready flavours of the yeasts
name 2 types of finishing of white wines
fining and filtration
what is fining?
removing suspended particles in wine
is MLF used in red wine making
yes
what does MLF do for red wine?
softens acidity, adds complexity, stablizes
does red wine get clarified,and if so, when
sometimes, between fermenatation and maturation
for red wine, list some types of maturation choices
vessels to use, duration of ageing, racking, topping up
types of wood barrels
oak, cherry, chestnut
other ways to get oak in wine
staves, chips added in to stainless vessels
define racking
transferring wine from one vessel to another to reduce odors, and remove particles
define topping up
keeping barrels full to decrease oxidation
what do you top up wine with
same of better wine ideally
list some maturation tricks for red wine
oak staves, oak chips, micro-oxygenation
stages of blending (4)
grapes grown, harvested, fermented together
blend after fermentation
assemblage after MLF
blend before bottling
is filtration more or less common in fine red wines
less common
Production areas of the Douro?
Douro Superior
Cima Corgo
Baixo Corgo
Maximum yield for sherry grapes in l/100kg?
70-72.5
Difference between LBV and Vintage port?
Port aged 2yrs in pipe then bottled
LBV is 4-6 in pipe then bottled
Traditional LBV not fined, filtered or stabilized
What is Geropegas?
Sweetening wine, like a sussreserve, used to correct port
Fortification levels of Fino and Oloroso Sherry
15%, 18%
What moderates tannins in food
Chewiness
What is important about the terebinth tree
source of resin used to reduce spoilage in ancient wines in Greece
Define viscosity
the thickness or thiness of a wine
Where do tannins come from
pips, skins, stalks, wood barrels
if you have food with sweetness and fat, yielding a mouth coating fielding, what attribute in a wine would counteract that?
acidity
What is selection massale?
field selection of cuttings
Methods of Frost Protection
site selection: S.E. slopes, mid slope, dk soil
match site and varieties (spring frost/later ripening, fall frost/early ripening)
burn stuff
hight trellising
air circulation
aspersion
what is an oak container that holds hundreds of litres?
foudre or botti
What are the sweet wine producing areas of Entr-deux-mers?
Loupiac, Cadillac, St Croix du mont
What are the 5 regional vins de pays?
jardin de la france
d'Oc
Comptes Tolosan
Comptes Rhodaniens
Port de Mediterranee
What are the regions in Chianti?
Classico, Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi, Colline Lucchesi, Colline Pisane, Ruffina, Montespertoli
What are the 3 areas of Rioja?
Rioja Alta Roija Baja, and Rioja Alavesa
What are the grapes of white Roija?
Viura (aka Macabeo), Malvasia, and sometimes Garnacha Blanca
What area is known as Cava Country?
Penedes
What four grapes can be found in Cava?
Parallada, Macabeo, Xarel-lo, and sometimes Chardonnay
Type of vine spacing in Spain
Marco Real
What year did Spains DO system begin
1926
What new categories of ageing requirements are joining Crianza, Reserva, and Gran Reserva?
Viejo (36mos)
Anejo (24 mos)
Noble (12 mos)
Who runs Spains system?
INDO
Instituto Nacional de Denominaciones de Origen
What is Spains most basic wine category?
Vino de Mesa
Blends from multiple regions
After vino de mesa, what is Spains next wine category?
vino de mesa de (regional or provincial name)
After Vino de Mesa Regional, what is Spains next wine category
Vino de Comarcal
large loosely defined areas outside of the DO's which have some common character
How many Vino Comarcals are in Spain?
21
After Vino Comarcal, what's Spains next highest wine category?
Vino de la Tierra
What is Vino de la Tierra and how many are there?
Country wines, 25
equivalent to vin de pays in Fr
How many DO's in Spain and what does it mean?
Denominacion de Origen
54
How many DOCa and what are they?
2, Rioja and Priorat
DOCa Priorat also goes by what?
DOQ
Wht are Joven wines?
young wines - light, fruity
may or may not have time in wood, but if do - less than 6 mos
What are Crianza wines
means "raising"
must age min 2 full years, 6mos in oak
in Rioja, Navarro, and Rib del Due: 12 mos in oak
for white and rose: 6mos oak, total ageing 1yr
Describe Reserva wines in Spain
finer vintages
reds age 3yrs, 1 in oak, 1 in bottle minimum
whites age 2yrs, 6mos in cask
Describe Gran Reserva
finer vintages, more rigorous selection
age min 5yrs, min 2 cask, 2 bottle
white: 4yrs, 6 cask min