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25 Cards in this Set

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Hydrogen bond
A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually
oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules
Peptide bond
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein
Unsaturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon
atoms
Saturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms
Hydrophobic
Lacking any affinity to water
Hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
Dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
Simple carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms
Isomers
Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula
Biosynthesis
The process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones
Organic molecule
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous
Catalyst
A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process
Osmosis
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of
higher solute concentration
Semipermeable membrane
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through
Concentration
A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent
Diffusion
The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Phase
One of three forms - solid, liquid, or gas - which every substance is capable of attaining
Chemical change
A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance
Physical change
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance
Molecules
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together
Element
A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons
Model
An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space