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34 Cards in this Set

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3 designs/ways to evaluate habitat use
-use/availability
-used vs. random sites
-demographic response
wildlife management
art and science of maintaining habitat and wildlife poulations for the benefits of wildlife and humans
Ehrlich's 3 components of environmental impact
-population * affluence * technology
Mahoney's five ppillars of the North American wildlife conservation model
1. non-frivolous use
2. equal opportunity hunting for all
3. scientific management
4. international species
5. prohibitions on commerce
how many people hunt, fish etc.
Hunt: 13 million ($20.6 billion)
Fish: 34.1 million ($35.6 billion)
Nonconsumptive: 66.1 million ($38 billion)
-plus 13.8 billion additional moeny coming from hunting and fishing ($70 billion total)
today's forests are either:
-commercial
-reserved
-noncommercial
Western U.S. divided into three sections of forests:
-Pacific NW and Interior
-Northern Rocky Mountains
-Southern Rocky Mountains
eastern U.S. divided into three sections of forests
-Lake States and Northeast
-Central Mountains and Plateaus
-Southern states
Forest Reserve Act
-1891
Organic Act
-established National Forest Service
-1892
Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act
-1960
Wilderness Act
1964
NEPA
1969
Sikes Act
1974
NFMA
1976
What is the primary goal of managing forestlands for wildlife?
-keep various successional sstages in a forest
-can use fire and silviculture
two types of systems for forest management
-uneven-aged and even-aged
even-aged forest management
-clearcut
-seed tree cuts
-shelterwood cuts
Models for forest management
-silvicultural
-single-species wildlife habitat (HSI)
-multi-species wildlife habitat (GAP)
types of silvicultural forest management
-stand-based
-invididual tree
-landscape or regional models
important to maintain diversity at four levels:
-genetic
-species
-community and ecosystem
-landscape
key habitats of concern in U.S.
-sagebrush-steppe
-desert
-aspen
indirect negative impacts of cattle
-decrease plant vigor/amount of forage
-decrease plant's ability to reproduce
-change in cover type to less favorable types
-decrease kinds and qualities and amounts of preferred forage
types of effects of cattle on rangelands
-direct negative
-indirect negative
-operational
-beneficial
things that affect relationship between wildlife and livstock
-number of livestock
-timing/duration of grazing
-livestock distribution
-types of livestock
-specialized grazing systems
specialized grazing systems
-continuous
-deferred
-rotational
riparian management depends on:
-understanding of what constitutes a riparian area
-internal functions/processes
-influences on riparian ecosystems
-importance to wildlife
4 components of a riparian system
-stream banks
-channel
-water column
-vegetation
types of water supplementation
-spring development
-horizontal wells
-tinajas
-sand dams
-reservoirs/ponds
-dugouts
-adits
-guzzlers
fire usually negative for what species:
-red-backed vole
-spruce grouse
-others depending on timing, intensity of burn
TWS's position on livestock grazing
-important land use and management tool that can be used to alter rangeland vegetation toward specific objectives
according to TWS, livestock grazing must include:
-based on scientific studies and considers all resources, trends, interactions, and human values and needs
-provides for adaptive management and continued improvement of programs based on increased understanding and knowledge
-includes details for monitoring
-coordiantion among agencies and public
livestock grazing has three major effects on ecosystems:
-alteration of species composition
-disruption of ecosystem function
-alteration of ecosystem structure
three general recommendations for managing forest riparian zones
-logging prohibited
-construction of landings, campgrounds, roads prohibited
-control uplands to reduce sedimentation