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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nature “temple” sullied by
economic activities
Romantic Transcendental Preservation Ethic
(John Muir(1838-1914))
“the greatest good for
the greatest number of people for the
longest time”
Natural resources
effort of maintaining
and using natural resources wisely
Resource Conservation Ethic
(Gifford Pinchot)
People “citizen-members”
Nature complicated and integrated
Evolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic
(Aldo Leopold (1886-1948))
The applied science of maintaining earth’s biodiversity
Conservation Biology
Free ranging undomesticated animals in natural environment
Fishery – composed of 3
interacting components
Biota, Habitat, and Human User
Manipulation of population or habitat to achieve desired goals by people
Wildlife Management
Wildlife populations may be
managed in one of four ways
1)Make it increse
2)Make it decrease
3)Harvest the population for countinuing yeild
4)Do nothing
Four types User pay
Licence sales
Excise tax
Special use stamp
Private Spending
Wildlife restorasion act
11% excise tax sporting arms/ammunition
Sportfish Restoration Act
10% tax on fishing equipment
Five Federal Agencies
-Administers national forests and grasslands and wildlife thereon
– Research and management
– Regional experiment centers
– Soil Conservation Service (SCS)
– Soil surveys
– Soil and water conservation data, assistance
– Funds small watershed projects
– Assists with habitat development on public
Natural Resources Conservation Service
– 1940
– Conservation of migratory birds, certain
mammals, sport fishes
– Manages federal refuges and fish hatcheries
– Coordinates endangered species program
– Administers federal aid to states
– Negotiates international treaties
US Fish and Wildlife Service
– John Muir
– Wildlife on national parks and monuments
– Mission: “conserve the scenery and the
natural and historic objects and the wild life
therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the
same in such manner and by such means as
will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment
of future generations”
National Park Service
Biological Resource Division (BRD)
– Formed from the research divisions of seven
Dept of Interior bureaus
– Mission: provide scientific understanding and
technologies to support management and
conservation of Nation’s biological resources
US Geological Survey
– 1946
– Ca. 55% of all fed lands
– Primarily in western states
– Supervises multiple uses
• Wildlife
• Grazing
• Mining
• Recreation
• Timber
• Watershed
Bureau of Land Managment
– Water development
– Western states
– Fish and wildlife management considered in
reclamation projects
Bureau of Reclamation
• Pollution control and monitoring
– Air, water, solid and hazardous waste, pesticides,
toxic substances, radiation, noise
• Establishing and enforcing laws
Environmental Protection Agency
– Reviews and comments on EISs prepared by other
federal agencies
– Maintains a national filing system for all EISs
– Assures that its own actions comply with NEPA.
National Enviormental Policy Act
– Research and management of marine
– Marine fish, mammals, and invertebrates
National Marine Fisheries Service
– Dredging
– Stream stabilization on navigable rivers and
coastal wetlands
– Issues dredge and fill permits through Clean
Water Act
Army Corps of Engineers
• Prohibited shipment, transport, and
commerce of wildlife taken or possesed in
violation of state, federal, or foreign laws
• Eliminated “market hunting”
• Federal permit for importation of exotic
Lacey Act
• US, Great Britain, and Canada (1918),
Mexico (1936), Japan (1972), USSR
• Defined migratory birds
• Prohibited sale of game birds
• Spring/night shooting abolished
• Daily bag limits
• Nongame migratory birds protected
• Native Americans exempted
Migratory Bird Treaty Act
• Prohibited transport or commerce in
violation of state or federal laws
• Protection for All game fish
Black Bass Act
• Duck Stamp Act
• Required waterfowl hunters > 16 yrs old
to purchase federal stamp
• Purchase/conserve waterfowl habitat
Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act
• Orderly use, improvements, and
development of range resources
• Grazing districts
• Cooperation between wildlife and range
state agencies
Taylor Grazing Act
• Conforming activities ok
– Hunting, fishing, camping
• No cars, no roads
• Pre-existing use may continue
– Mining, reservoirs, livestock, tree harvest
Wilderness Act
• Required for “federal activities
significantly affecting quality of human
National Environmental Policy Act
– FONSI – Finding of No Significant Impact- is the desired conclution
Enviormental Assessment
– Purpose of action
– Environmental impact
– Alternatives
Enviormental Impact Statement
• Preserve endangered species in native
• “Take”: harm, including habitat
• Critical habitat
Endangered Species Act
– Fed agencies consult with Interior about
actions that might jeopardize T&E species
Section 7
• Protection for endangered species
• Import/export procedure
• 120+ nations, 675+ species
• 3 lists:
– Species endangered by trade
– Species that may or may not be threatened by
– Species that should be regulated in trade
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
• USFS lands comply with NEPA
• Multiple-use planning and management
of timber on federal lands
• Viable populations of native vertebrates
on federal lands
National Forest Managment Act
1st phase in management
Determine goals
How best to acheive goals
Technical Judgement
Two Modes of Wildlife Management
Traditional and Experimental
-Reasoning that proceeds from specific set of observations to general inference to the whole
-Basis for formation of theory
Reasoning that users observations or experiments to test hypothesis
Three keys to experimintation
Randomization, Controls, and Replication
Indicator, Umbrella, Flagship, Keystone,
Single-Species Management
Species whose status provides information on different things in the enviorment
Indicator species
The process of implementing a policy decision incrementally, so that changes can be made if the desired results aren't being achieved
Adaptive Management
species with large
home ranges and broad habitat
requirements such that protecting it
will save many other species.
Umbrella Species
Charismatic species that win the public support for wildlife conservation
Flagship Species
A species whose absence leads to significant changes in some feture of its ecosystem
Highly-Interactive Species
Species that play
critical ecological roles that are of
greater importance than predicted
based on their abundance
species that are often extremely
abundant or ecologically dominant
– “Big-picture” thinking
–Multidimensional, interdependent
– Responsibilities begin at boundaries
– Define common problems and boundaries
of concern
– Native species and ecosystems
– Ecological processes
– Accommodate human use
Ecological integrity
– Scientific data collection
– Nonbiological data (e.g. social data)
Data collection
– Testing data against management
activities and experiments
– Funding?
– Competition often characterizes
– Share in defining problem
– Share power
– Humans and nature?
– “Citizen-members”
Humans embedded
in nature
– “Continuous experiment where
incorporating results of previous actions
allows managers to remain flexible and
adapt to uncertainty”
– Diverse institutional structures must
– Producing resources -> Protecting
– Bureaucracies resistant to change
– Nature dynamic
– Resource allocation decisions - political
struggle rather than technical facts
– Resource management decisions about
use - manipulating human behavior
– Resource managers, when confronted
with social value decisions, will seek to
convert them into technical decisions
-Concern with the ecosystem and species interdependence
-Interest in wildlife and their habitats through direct experience and contacts
-Moral, ethical, and spiritual importance of animals
-Strong affection for individual animals
-Interest in the physical attractiveness of animals
-Metaphorical and figurative significance of wildlife
-Interest in the practical value of animals and their habitats
-Mastery and control of animals
-Fear and aversion of animals
Nt = λ^t*No
Finite (Discrete) Exponential Growth
Nt= No*e^rt
Continuous Exponential Growth
Nt+1 = Nt + R Nt [1- (Nt /K)]
Finite (Discrete) Logistic Growth
Nt = K/[1 + (K-N0)/ N0)e^-rt] = K/[1 + (K/N0 – 1)e^-rt]
Continuous Logistic Growth