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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ancient wildlife management peoples
-Fan Lee
More recent wildlife people yay
Aldo Leopold's 1933 pattern
1. restriction of hunting
2. predator control
3. reservation of gamelands
4. artificial replenishment (restocking, relocating)
5. environmental controls
JJ Hickey
-3 phases of wildlife conservation (awareness, action, rise of ecology)
JJ Hickey's awareness
-involved real or imagined catatrophes pertaining to wildlife
-identify the causes
JJ Hickey's "action"
1. prohibition
2. atonement
3. monasticism
4. education
5. control
6. subsidies
7. public ownership
8. free enterprise
9. science and research
-methods to make up for our mistakes
-e.g. artificial replenishment
-reserving lands
control (Hickey)
not just predators, but exotics, vermin, noxious weeds
subsidies (hickey)
structures supporting wildlife; bounties
public ownership (hickey)
for the public and wildlife good
free enterprise (hickey)
17th American Game Conference
-14-member committee produced American Game Policy
American Game Policy
-series of suggestions that serve as guideline for state/federal efforts to preserve, manage, and restore wildlife resources
1973 - American Game Policy
-Wildlife Management Institute revised 1930 policy statement
-published North American Wildlife Policy
Martin vs. Wadell
-New Jersey preventing harvest of clams
-people of N.J. rightful owners of wildlife
Geer vs. Connecticut
-regarded as cornerstone of state ownership of wildlife
-guy shooting birds and taking them out of state
-state could regulate interstate trade
-state laws could not violate federal laws
ultimate source of authority for governmental aactions
-U.S. Constitution
-both state and federal governments use Constitution in establishing laws that deal with wildlife
-states have authority over resident wildlife and abide by treaties made by federal government over migratory wildlife
Where does legal authority come from?
1. statutory law (laws enacted by Congress)
2. common law (body of court decisions)
3. case law (conflicts resolved in court become case law)
other legal authority for wildlife management comes from...
-zoning and easements enacted by Congress
-legislature must also appropriate money, not always done to sufficient level to meet needs
Convention for the protection of Migratory Birds
-1916 with Canada (U.K.)
-1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act mandated enforcement of 1916 treaty
other treaties for migratory wildlife
-1936 - Mexico
-1972 - Japan
-1978 - Soviet Union
International Whaling Commission
-convention on international trade in endangered species of fauna and flora
-passed 1975 in Washington D.C.
-world's largest treaty (176 countries)
-dividies listed species into appendices
-Appendix I
-threatened and endangered, not necessarily on U.S. list
-need permits from export and import countries
-no commercial trade, only scientific work
-1000 + species
Appendix II
-not threatened or endangered, but still concern
-still need permits for exporting country
-likely to be T & E, if trade no strictly regulated
-trade allowed but monitored
Appendix III
-species commonly traded
-still need export permit
-listed by individual countries to reinforce domestic conservation measures
Lacy Act
-prohibited interstate transportation of wildlife killed in violation of state law
-allows state to prohibit export of game lawfully killed
-allows states to regulate importation of wildlife
Black Bass Act
-provides same capabilities to states for fish, as Lacy Act
Who owns habitat?
-western states - Forest Service, BLM
-Texas - large landowners
1907 - Teddy Roosevelt
-set aside 43 million acres of undeeded western land as forest reserves by executive order
-federal government provided subsidized irrigation water to private citizens in the west
-local people could benefit from federal assistance
how much land federally controlled?
-Alaska - 95%
-Idaho - 64%
-Calfornia - 44%
-Virginia - 9%
-right, such as right of way, afforded a person to make limited use of another's real property
-USFWS has 942,000 ha in easements - most as waterfowl production areas
USFWS has how many ha in easements?
-942,000, most as waterfowl production areas
-control of privately-owned real estate by public law
-exercise of police power
Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
-1934, 1946, 1958
-aimed at Dept. Interior
-ensure that wildlife had consideration in water development
-led to three important values
-three important values created by Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
1. Fish and wildlife had to be considered before big water projects could begin
2. additional land and water acquisitions of equal value could be required if project jeopardized existing wildlife habitat
-encouraged states and federal cooperation
Taylor Grazing Act
Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act - 1937
-AKA Pittman-Robertson Act
Pittman-Robertson Act - basic
-most important legislation for wildlife management
-15 years to get passed
-10% excise tax on sales of sporting arms and ammunition, later raised to 11%
revenues from P-R Act
-pooled at federal level to be distributed to states through USFWS
-research, land acquisition, construction, maintenance of completed projects, management of WMAs
P-R funds NOT used for
-law enforcement
-public relations
-game farms
additions to P-R Act
-12% tax on handguns in 1970, half of this for hunter safety and range construction
-12% tax on archery equipment in 1975, half for safety
what must states do to get federal P-R money
-must have law that directs license money to management agency
-it can't be diverted
how is P-R money allocated?
-half funds based on ratio of area of state to total U.S. area
-half funds based on number hunting licenses purchased compared to total # hunting licenses in U.S.
-no state gets less than 0.5 % or more than 5%
-8% funds for administration
common programs or state nongame
-threatened and endangered
-land acquisition
-urban wildlife programs
-public relations
funding of nongame species
1. license dollars
2. general tax revenue
3. matching federal funds (sec 6 & 7, etc)
4. stamps, certificates, gimmicks
5. T-shirts
6. sales tax (MO - 1975)
7. Income tax checkoff - 32 states
8. license plates - increasing sales
9. vehicle registration for incoming cars in FL
10. Colorado - lottery
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act
-Nongame is any wild vertebrate in an unconfined state that:
1. not ordinarily taken for food, sports, fur, or is in area where it is not taken
2. are not listed asd T or E
3. not marine mammals
4. not domesticated spp. that have reverted to a feral existence
Idaho's definition of nongame
-everything not classified as game animals, game birds, game fish, furbearers, T & E species, or predatory wildlife"
what are predatory wildlife?
Why manage for nongame species?
1. moral responsibility to protect land and its creatures
2. increasing demands and impacts of recreational use of wildlife resources
3. all spp. of scientific value
4. educational values
5. aesthetic values, religious values
6. each component of nature integral part of balance of nature
7. prevent T & E listings
Section 10 of ESA
-creative partnerships among public and private sectors in interests of species and habitat conservation
-authorized HCPs
-habitat conservation plans
-once approved by USFWS, allowl andowners to incidentally take lised species or their habitats after plan IDs what will be done to minimize and mitigate impact of poermitted take
how many species delisted as of 2006?
-recovered (17)
-extinct (9)
-error/taxonomic revision (14)
Section 7 of ESA
-all fed agencies must use power of authority of fed. government for conservation of listed species
-calls for biological assessments if T & E species are likely to occur on a constructon site, provides funds
Section 6 of ESA
-provides for state and federal cooperation through cost sharing of federal funds with state moeny
Section 8 of ESA
-established rules of trade in wildlife and plants to insure survival of world's spp. most affected by international trade
does CITES affect how species is managed within a country?
-requires all signatories to have established a management authority in country to manage listed species
As of 2006, how many species in U.S. T or E?
-threatened - 997
-endangered - 275
Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act
-AKA Dingell-Johnson Act
Dingell-Johnson Act
-10% tax on reels, creels, rods, lures, flies, baits
-40% allocation based on land area, 60% on number fishing licenses sold
-amended D-J adding tax on other sport fishing equipment
-3% tax on electric trolling motors, fish finders and motorboat fuels
-$90 million per year, half for boating safety, half for fish management
Money collected in Pittman Robertson
2004 - combined P-R and D-J = 464 million dollars
How many people hunt, fish, etc.?
Hunt - 13 million (7%)
Fish - 34.1 million (18%)
Nonconsumptive - 66.1 million (35%)
how much money do fishers, hunters, etc. spend?
Hunters: 20.6 billion
Fishers: 35.6 billion
Nonconsumptive: 13.8 billion
National Environmental Policy Act
Wild and Free Roaming Horses and Burros Act
Marine Mammal Proection Act
National Forest Management Act
HD field seeks to:
-understand human traits and ways to incorporate that understanding into wildlife management planning and actions
HD is umbrella term that encompasses functions including:
-social science research
-public involvement
-public relations and other communications
-policy and regulations
Origins of HD
1. desire to understand stakeholders actually started with hunters - concept of satisfaction
2. desire to understand factors that precipitate changes in wildlife management
Who are stakeholders in wildlife management?
-anyone who has an interest
-changes depending on the issue
-making decisions
future of hd?
-incorporate HD into ecosystem management
-social impact assessment
-anti-hunter movement
International Association of Game, Fish, and Conservation Commissioniers
-adopted 1934
-now all states use Model State Game and Fish Administrative Law
commission system
-several commissioners apointed by the governor
-staggered terms of office
-commission hires Director
What does Director do?
-manages agency's activities and field operations
-coordinates programs and forms link between commission and daily activities of department
What should commission limit its activities to, ideally?
-forming policy
-ratifying legal matters
-interacting with legistlative and executive branches of state government
4 pitfalls to commission system
1. commissioners active in routine operations of agency
2. overrepresentation of regional interests
3. repetition of earlier mistakes in policy
4. partisan political pressure on individual commissioners
how much F &G funding comes from license sales?
-mostly funds spent on fisheries and wildlife programs, and administrative programs
"Rare" in ESA
-same as threatened
-may still be used by state agencies
-not used by USFWS to avoid dealing with very thinly distributed populations of secutre species at end of distributions
causes of T and E status
-always scarce
-natural causes
-past exploitation
-pest control
-illegal taking
-human disturbance
-introduced species
-habitat loss of alteration
Brian Moser's four conservation approaches
-coasrse filter
-fine filter
-synoptic approach