Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort, and a person's level of persistence.
Intrinsically motivated behavior
Behavior that is performed for its own sake.
Extrinsically motivated behavior
Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment.
Anything a person gets from a job or organization.
Anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization.
Expectancy theory
The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes.
In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which effort results in a certain level of performance.
In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which performance results in the attainment of outcomes.
In expectancy theory, how desirable each of the outcomes available from a job or organization is to a person.
A requirement or necessity for survival and well-being.
Need theories
Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs.
ERG theory
The theory that three universal needs—existence, relatedness, and growth—constitute a hierarchy of needs and motivate behavior. Alderfer proposed that needs at more than one level can be motivational at the same time.
Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory
A need theory that distinguishes between motivator needs (related to the nature of the work itself) and hygiene needs (related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed) and proposes that motivator needs must be met for motivation and job satisfaction to be high.
Need for achievement
The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence.
Need for affiliation
The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having other people around them get along with one another.
Need for Power
The extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others.
Equity theory
A theory of motivation that focuses on people's perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs.
The justice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitled.
Lack of Fairness
Underpayment inequity
The inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcomeinput ratio is less than the ratio of a referent.
Overpayment inequity
The inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input ratio is greater than the ratio of a referent.
Goal-setting theory
A theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effects.
Learning theories
Theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the attainment of goals.
A relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience.
Operant conditioning theory
The theory that people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences.
Positive reinforcement
Giving people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functional behaviors.
Negative reinforcement
Eliminating or removing undesired outcomes when people perform organizationally functional behaviors.
Curtailing the performance of dysfunctional behaviors by eliminating whatever is reinforcing them.
Administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs.
Organizational behavior modification
The systematic application of operant conditioning techniques to promote the performance of organizationally functional behaviors and discourage the performance of dysfunctional behaviors.
Social learning theory
A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by people's thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people's behavior.
Vicarious learning
Learning that occurs when the learner becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform it; also called observational learning.
Any desired or attractive outcome or reward that a person gives to himself or herself for good performance.
A person's belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully.
Merit pay plan
A compensation plan that bases pay on performance.
Employee stock option
A financial instrument that entitles the bearer to buy shares of an organization's stock at a certain price during a certain period of time or under certain conditions.