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34 Cards in this Set

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Matter
anything that takes up space(has a volume) and has mass
Mass
the amount of matter an object contains
Weight
the amount of gravitational attraction for an object (varies depending on location)
Inertia
the amount of resistance the object has to any change in its motion or position
pure substance
a particular kind of matter that has a uniform and definite composition, all elements and compounds are pure substances
Physical Properties
characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition

ex: melting point, boiling point, density, color, odor, hardness, mass
Solids
have a fixed mass and volume, completely rigid
Liquids
have a fixed mass and volume, but can take the shape of its container
Gas
has a definate mass, but not a definate shape or volume, expands to fill it's container
vapor
used to describe a substance that generally exists as a solid or liquid at room temperature, but is presently in the gaseous state
physical change
will alter the substance without changing its composition
mixtures
consist of a physical blend of two or more substances, where each component retains it's unique characteristics
Heterogeneous Mixtures
not uniform in composition
Homogeneous
completely uniform composition, all elements and compounds are this, and mixtures that are this are called solutions
distillation
means to seperate a liquid and solid/solute, or two liquids with different boiling points; used evaporation
filtration
used to seperate solids from liquids by using a strainer
Compounds
substances that can be broken down into simpler substances (elements) only by chemical reactions; always heterogeneous; always with a fixed ratio
Elements
the simplest forms of matter; made up of only one element; homogeneus
Atom
the smallest unit of an element that still retains its characteristic properties
metals
mostly shiny, flexible solids, good conductors of heat and electricity, luster, ductile
nonmetals
exist as gases, or easily vaporixed liquids or solids, that have a dull appearance and absorb electricity
acid
increased concentration of H+ (hydrogen ions), dissolve metals, taste sour, and have low pH values
base
increased concentration of OH- (hydroxide ions), react with acids to form water, taste bitter, and have high pH values
reactants
starting substances in a chemical reaction
products
the results of a chemical reaction
chemical change
when reactants form a new substance (product); indicated by production of energy, change in color or odor, production of gas or solid, cannot be easily reversed
precipitate
the solid that forms in a chemical reaction
chemical properties
describe the ability to and behavior of a substance when it is undergoing a chemical reaction
The Law of Conservation of Mass
matter can neither be created nor destroyed
energy
the capacity for doing work
potential energy
stored energy that provides the ability to do work
kenetic energy
the energy of motion that occurs when work is actually being done

KE=1/2mv2
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a material
heat
a measure of the amount of energy that can be transfered from a warmer object to a cooler object because of a difference in temperature