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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 major new movements
Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment
Focus on human endeavors (returned to Europe with the Renaissance)
Renaissance literally means...
Great artists of the day
Michelangelo, Brunellschi, Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello
Renaissance art focused on...
realism (Greeks, anyone?) (NOTE: linear perspective developed)
Who painted Sistine Chapel?
(Italy) Michelangelo
Contrast: Art in Middle Ages & Renaissance
Medieval - flat, very religious, only found in cathedrals; Renaissance - perspective, realistic, somewhat religious, found everywhere
Johannes Gutenberg
Moveable type invented in 1400s (already in China)
Printing press
Books = cheaper, easier to produce
Machievaelli wrote what book?
The Prince--one of first books used by printing press; how-to for monarchs to maintain power
Wrote book criticizing most foolish political moves to date
Sir Thomas More
Author, Utopia--desc ideal society
William Shakespeare
Renaissance; depicted humor, tragedy, etc, and thus the feelings of the time
How did Catholic Church pay for expensive artists for cathedrals?
Indulgences (OOPS)
Martin Luther
95 theses (helped by printing press); no indulgences, services shouldn't bein Latin
Martin Luther's followers become the...
John Calvin
Protestant (Calvinist); God had already created a destiny for all people; only a few would be saved
Pope Leo X
Excommunicated Martin Luther
King Henry VIII
Wanted to divorce Catherine, church denied it, so he declared himself leader of religious affairs: Church of England
Anglican Church
(AKA Church of England) King Henry VIII (divorce dispute)
Catholic Reformation
(aka counter-reformation) Banned indulgences, reconsidered issues, etc. (See Council of Trent) SUCCESSFUL
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Jesuits; helped restore faith in teachings of Jesus as Catholic Church interpreted them
Council of Trent
Answered important questions (Catholic): nature of salvation, Latin re-established, etc.
Scientific Revolution
Copernican Revolution, Scientific Method, and Deism
Nicolaus Copernicus
Mathematical theory: Earth revolves around the sun (WTF was he thinking); Galileo confirms
Confirmed Copernicus's findings (rejected Ptolemy); Catholic Church puts him on house arrest
The Index
Catholic list of banned "heretical" works
Tycho Brahe
Built observatory, recorded observations, used sci method
Francis Bacon
Published works on inductive logic, used sci method
Johannes Kepler
Lwas of planetary motion based on observation & math
Isaac Newton
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy: invented calculus, helped prove theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, and more! (not to mention GRAVITY)
Mostly b/c of Sci Revolution. Believed in a god who created realm, but didn't interfere with it (watchmaker)
During this period, what challenged the Church?
Protestant Reformation, Sci Revolution
The Enlightenment
17th and 18th centuries; focused on mankind in relation to gov
Divine Right
James I of England: "The king is from God and the law is from the King." Basically, God chose the king; respect his authorit-ay
Contrast: Divine Right, Mandate of Heaven
In Mandate of Heaven, they would be given authority only when they pleased God
Thomas Hobbes
People are, by nature, greedy. (Gov should, thus, preserve peace at all costs)
An all powerful ruler
John Locke
Human nature is mostly good (contrast to Thomas Hobbes). (Believed in the "unalienable rights"--life, liberty, property)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
EVERYONE in society is equal (inspiration for anti-slavery)
Damn son, tolerate other religions!
Argued for separation of powers among branches of gov
Enlightened Monarchs
Tolerated diversity, gave opportunities to serfs, and embraced Enlightenment Ideals
Bartholomew Dias
Rounded the tip of Africa (financed by Portugal)
Vasco de Gama
Rounded Cape of Good Hope and went all the way to India!! (Portugal financed)
Christopher Columbus
Financed by Spain (for gold and spices, neither of which he found); most intellectuals knew the Earth was round (but how big??)
Treaty of Tordesillas
Spain & Portugal fighting over colonies in the Americas; estab a line of longitude to separate
Sternpost Rudder
Han Dynasty
Lateen Sails
Sail in ANY direction regardless of wind!!! (big for those in Indian Ocean---monsoons)
Measured latitude
Magnetic Compass
China; determine direction
Three-Masted Caravels
Lg ships, lg sails, long journeys, tons of supplies in cargo rooms
Hernan Cortes
Landed in Mexico (Aztecs); used local natives (who hated the Aztecs) to overtake Tenochtitlan
The *other* thing Europe brought to the Americas
Disease. Especially smallpox
Fransisco Pizarro
Destroyed the Incas. (Owned.)
Spanish officials sent to govern colonies of New World
People born in New World colonies to Spanish parents
European & native American ancestry
European & African ancestry
Appointed governors in New World
Econmienda System
Viceroys get land and laborers if they protect them, make them work, and convert them to Christianity
The psuedo-fuedal system in the New World (Spain)
Peninsulares -> Creoles (crillos) -> Mestizos -> Mulattos -> Indigineous
How did Spain solve the Christian appeal to the brutal treatment of natives of Americas?
Ironically, they sent in African slaves to help relieve the burden
Columbian Exchange
From Europe/Africa: horses, pigs, goats, chili peppers, sugar cane; From Americas: squash, beans, corn, potatoes (YAY), and cacao (mmm, chocolate)
What was exchanged in the exploration of the New World?
People, disease, weapons, food, animals, etc.
Age of Exploration influenced the Church how?
Eh, fine, whatever--lending w/ interest is OK.
Joint-stock company
Investors buys stock to help distribute risk (and profit); NOTE: emerging middle-class of merchants (burghers, anyone?)
Muscovy Company
England; monopolized trade routes to Russia
Dutch East India Company
Controlled routes to Spice Islands (Indonesia)
Balance of trade (imports should not exceed exports); prevented dependence on others
Mercantilism: why did it promote colonization?
Because colonies were considered part of your country (thus, it wasn't an import, but you got tons of resources)
Charles V
Inherited thrown of Spain, but also was elected to the Holy Roman Empire
Ferdinand I & Philip II
Charles V split his empire and gave these two each a piece
Spanish Armada
Spain's navy
Act of Supremacy
Issued by Henry VIII to overrule the pope
Elizabethan Age
Golden age in England--Drake circumnavigates the world, Shakespeare begins writing, first joint-stock company founded, etc etc
James I
Succeeded Elizabeth; tried to accommodate Catholics & Puritans (but failed); Jamestown named after him (this is when pilgrims went over)
Petition of Right
England, signed by Charles I; limited taxes and forbid unlawful punishment
Charles I
Ignored parliament, signed Petition of Right (to get funds); Result: Scottish Invasion; executed after rebellion
Long Parliament
Limited the absolute powers of monarchy; Charles I was forced to call this b/c of Scottish invasion
Oliver Cromwell
Led rebellion against Charles I (and won); became "Lord Protector" of the English Commonwealth
Stuart Restoration
Charles II invited to lead limited monarchy in England after Cromwell kinda sucked
Habeas Corpus Act
Protects people from arrests without due protests
Glorious Revolution
Bloodless; James II taken out of office; led to English Bill of Rights
Group of French Protestants; bitterly fought against Catholics until Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
First Bourbon king (France); tolerance of Huguenots
Cardinal Richelieu (and Mazarin)
Catholic; Chief adviser to the Bourbons; created a social class, noblesse de la robe; negotiated with Protestants
Louis XIV
Called himself "Sun King", ignored Estates General, revoked Edict of Nantes and appointed Colbert as financial manager
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Strict mercantilist; believed Spain should increase land holdings so as to have more resources/taxes; very successful
War of Spanish Succession
Louis XIV's grandsons inherited Spanish throne, the rest of Europe is afraid, and they gang up and decide on a deal where Spain isn't super-powerful
Amerigo Vespucci
Explored S America; America named after him!!
Ponce de Leon
Explored Florida for Spain in search of Fountain of Youth
Vasco de Balboa
Explored C America (Spain)
Ferdinand Magellan
His crew circumnavigated the globe (woot) (Portugal)
Giovanni de Varrazano
Explored N American coast for France
Sir Francis Drake
First Englishman to circumnavigate globe
John Cabot
Explored coast of N America for England
Henry Hudson
Sailed for Dutch for a NW passage to Asia
Peace of Augsburg
Tried to bring peace between Catholics & Protestants (failed; 30 Years' War broke out)
30 Years' War
Protestants tested the authority of the emperor of Holy Roman Empire (catholic)
Peace of Westphalia
Ended 30 Years' War; toke a LOT of power away from Holy Roman Empire
Who invaded Constantinople and ended Byzantine empire?
Ottoman Turks (renamed the city Istanbul)
Children of Christian subjects of the Ottomans used to conquer territory
Selim I
Ottoman Empire; Made Istanbul the center of Islamic civilization
Suleiman I
Ottoman Empire; built military, encouraged the arts (GOLDEN AGE under him!)
Ivan III refused to pay tribute to...
Russian peasant-soldiers who went to new territories to settle
Time of Troubles
Russia; Country was still feudal; local lords began fighting
Michael Romanov
Csar of Russia, united the country after Time of Troubles
Peter the Great
Tried to westernize Russia: built navy, founded St. Petersburg, fashions for women, shave beards, etc.
Catherine the Great
Russian; continued enlightenment policies of Peter the Great; expanded to west; serfs treated VERY badly
Russia: Why were Peter and Catherine the Great important?
They westernized the country
Babur founds...
the Mughal Empire (Muslim) after defeating Delhi Sultanate in India
Descent of Babur; united the country in accepting other religions (besides Islam)
Mughal Empire was important b/c it...
unified India more than ever before
Shah Jahan
Mughal Empire; under him, Taj Mahal was built; after him...uh oh!
Two major developments after Akbar in Mughal Empire...
(1) Religious toleration ended (and thus the golden age), and (2) Europeans arrived (premonition coming on, anyone?)
Chinese navigator; explored all the way to E Africa
Ming Empire
Ousted Mongols; built strong central gov based on Confucian principles
After Ming. Aka Manchu, because they were from Manchuria. Tried to prevent Chinese from mixing with their culture...
Tokugawa Shogunate
Took power away from emperor, created a psuedo-caste system, moved capital, secluded country
Edo Period
aka time during Tokugawa time period (they moved capital to Edo--Tokyo)
National Seclusion Policy
Prohibited Japanese from traveling abroad