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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Earliest civilizations
Foraging, hunter/gatherer, and some pastoral activity
Neolithic Revolution
In contrast to paleolithic, had AGRICULTURE (aka Agricultural Revolution). Around 5000 BCE
Nomadic vs Agricultural Societies
Ag societies stay in one place, had a mindset of ownership over land
Mesopotamia: what does the name mean, where is it?
"land between rivers"; contains Tigris & Euphrates rivers
Sumerian Civilization: writing & religion
Developed cuneiform, polytheistic; built ziggurats
Akkad: major development
Sargon of Akkad takes over Sumer, Akkad develops first known code of laws (written in cuneiform)
Succeeded Akkad; Hammurabi was from here
From Babylon, dev'd legal code; fell to Hittites
Took over Babylon with iron weapons
Powerful military, defeated Hittites (ironically) with iron
Led by Nebuchadnezzar; defeated Assyrians; taken over by Persian Empire
Rebuilt city of Babylon; Chaldean king
Persian empire: big (long) creation
Had Great Royal Road
First coined money
Little land; lots of sea ports; developed revolutionary alphabet
Founded Judaism
Egypt: three kingdoms
Old (King Menes establishes city of Memphis), Middle, New (most prosperous)
Egyptian religion
Queen Hatshepsut
Ruled during New Kingdom (Egypt), very successful, FEMALE RULER (yeah, seriously)
Egypt social structure
Pyramid-style: pharaoh (owned all of the land) -> priests -> nobles -> merchants/artisans -> peasants (big group)
Egyptian decline
Persian Empire and Assyrian Empires begin to consume
Compare: Decline of Egypt & Mesopotamian Civilizations
Civilization becomes powerful, attracts attention from neighbors, they invade for a piece of the pie (mmm)
Khyber Pass
Hindu Kush Mountains
Indus Valley Civilization (2 cities)
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro had >100,000 people!!! (i.e. very well planned)
Aryan arrival
Nomads invade with horses & adv weapons, take over Indus Valley
Aryan religious books
Vedas & Upanishads
Aryan major social development
Caste system (later, Hinduism develops in the region...coincidence?)
Shang China
Unifies the country, limited contact with the rest of the world, established PATRIARCHAL society
Zhou Dynasty (China)
After Shang, create Mandate of Heaven, estab feudal system, and create complex bureaucracies (specialized tasks in the gov)
S Mexico, polytheistic, urban, good builders, calendars, etc
Chavin Society
S America, urban, polytheistic
Omecs and Chavin: Why important?
They developed independently from the civilizations in the E Hemisphere, and they didn't have a river valley!
First city in Sub-Sharan Africa
Bantu Migrations
Spread the Bantu family of languages (IMPORTANT), migrated around the continent
Why do people migrate?
Find food & hospitable environment (politics, poor framing methods, disease, slave trade, etc)
Mauryan Empire
Founded by Chadragupta Maurya; united Aryan kingdoms, but was a bit off a hard-ass (see his son, Ashoka)
Ashoka Maurya
Grandsom of Chandragupta, brought Mauryan empire to height; good leader!!; practices Rock and Pillar Edicts
Mauryan Empire: Why prosperous?
TRADE. Silk, cotton, elephants, etc. And a good military too.
Ashoka Maurya: What religion?
Converts to Buddhism! Definitely affects his rule
Rock and Pillar Edicts
Used by Ashoka Maurya; reminded citizens to live "generous and righteous lives"; (remember: he converted to buddhism)
Gupta Empire: who, what developments?
Created by Chandra Gupta (NOT same as Mr. Mauryan); a GOLDEN AGE: invented Arabic numbers (decimal system), concept of pi and zero -- SWEET; collapsed to White Huns
Buddhism vs Hinduism
By Gupta Dynasty, Hinduism had gained dominance, Buddhism was blending in
Qin Dyansty
Very very short. After Zhou. Connected Great Wall of China. Adopted legalism (NOT Confucianism). Qin Shihuangdi was an ass, but did well to standardize everything & eliminate enemies
Wu Ti
Founded Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Civil service system, anyone? Used to get qualified people for gov positions. Invented paper, sundials, and calendars.
Greece: geography
Peninsula, lots of water, very mountainous
city state, greece. If you don't know that, you are doomed to fail. Seriously. Just don't try. Quit. Now.
Political commercial, and cultural center of Greek
VERY military-oriented
Social structure in polis of Greece
(1) citizens, adult males; (2) free people, but no political rights; (3) non citizens (slaves, etc)
What % of population of Athens were slaves?
approx. 33.333333333333333333%
5 characteristics of a civilization
(1) advanced cities; (2) specialization of labor; (3) complex institutions (religion, gov, economy); (4) record-keeping; (5) advanced technology
Draco and Solon -- who?!
Aristocrats that worked to ensure fail, equal, and open participation in democracy (yay)
What were the 4 noble truths?
1. Life is filled w/ suffering and sorrow.
2. Suffering is caused by people pursuing pleasure.
3. The way to end suffering is to end all desires.
4. The way to end all desires is to follow 8fold path to nirvana
Persian Wars
Greek city states unite against Persia, hold back Persia (battle of Marathon), Athens partially destroyed, enter Golden Age of Pericles
Golden Age of Pericles
Democracy firmly established, Athens rebuilt (Delian League money), art flourishes (Homer's Illiad written)
Believed in truth and justice (ironically he was poisoned)
Theory of Forms & Ideas
Logical thinking (e.g. sci method)
Peloponnesian War
Sparta is pissed with Athens (mostly over Delian League & fund usage)
King Philip II of Macedon
Takes over Greece, but helps culture flourish, DOES NOT destroy it
Alexander the Great
Culture, ideas, etc. from CLASSICAL Greece
Rome Government
Senate (patrician faimilies) and Assembly (included some plebeians); used more republic-style gov; better than Greek "true" democracies
3 groups in Rome
Patricians (nobles), plebeians (all other free men), and slaves
Law code of Rome
Twelve Tables ("innocent until proven guilty")
Pater families
Center of Roman culture; women were inferior to men (but could sometimes own land); eldest male runs the family
Punic Wars
Rome vs. Carthage
Famous general from Carthage
Hannibal -- military genius!!
Change of government style in Rome
Republic -> Empire ("first triumvirate" take power, Julius Caesar takes over the other two)
First leader of EMPIRE in Rome
Julius Caesar (emperor for life; assassinated shortly after)
AKA Augustus Caesar; son of Julius Caesar; part of second triumvirate
Pax Romana
During reign of Augustus caesar (it is now an empire); peace and prosperity
Compare: Golden ages of Greece, Gupta, Rome, and others
Major empire grows in land, has more $$$, artistic/scientific innovations, they entered a "golden age"
Official state religion of Roman Republic?
Official religion of Rome during empire?
Christianity, due to Constantine and the Edict of Milan
Wang Mang
Established Xin dynasty (disrupted Han); used discontent in population to take over briefly
Collapse of Gupta Empire
Invaded by the White Huns (NOT the Huns)
Splits Rome into 2 parts, tries to strengthen economy
Makes Constantinople capital where Byzantium used to be
Led the Huns, who pressured Germanic tribes, who entered Rome and caused the western half to collapse
Son of rich Chinese family; wrote the Analects; it is a political/social philosophy, NOT a religion; relies on 5 relationships: ruler-subject, parent-child, etc
Confucianism, individuals superior because they can put personal ambition aside for the state
Doctrine of Daoism: disengagement from worldly affairs; speculates that ambition and activism only bring chaos to the world
Compare/Contrast Daoism/Confucianism
Both believed in Dao, but Confucianism tries to create orderly society; Daoism: internal peace
Which dynasty mostly used legalism?
Qin dynasty
One supreme force of Hinduism
Brahma (the creator); everything is a manifestation of him (including Vishnu and Shiva)
Hinduism; rules & obligations of class
Hinduism; highest state of being
Vedas & Upanishads
Found in Hinduism
Siddhartha Guatama
Hindu prince from Nepal, founded Buddhism
2 schools of Buddhism (after Buddha's death)
Theravada ("the Way of the Elders" or "the Lesser Vehicle"; meditation, simplicity) and Mahayana ("the Greater Vehicle"; rely more on priests/scriptures, Buddha is kinda godlike)
How have civilizations changed their surroundings to suit their own purposes?
canals, irrigation, metal-working, plowing, calendars, sundials, etc etc
Cro-Magnon People
First of the fully modern type (large kits of tools, art, religion?, etc)
City of ~30,000 in Sumer w/ distinct social classes, specialization, city walls, etc.
3 problems Sumerians faced
(1) Floods were not regular; (2) Small villages had no protection from enemies; (3) No stone/wood/metal for tools in the area
How did Egyptians view Nile?
As a GOD (omg).
Cities in Mesopotamia vs Indus Valley
Indus Valley = VERY well planned (grid system, sewage, etc); Mesopotamia = Hodgepodge of streets, buildings, etc, psshtt.
Tradition of Chinese going back to Confucius
Veneration of ancestors
Period of the Warring States
After Zhou rule, between the elites/aristocrats; ended when Qin established dominance
Hyksos used what new tool to conquer Egypt?
Aryan social classes (3)
Priests, warriors, peasants/traders
By Mahavira; EVERYTHING has a soul
Minoan Society
Found on island of Crete; RICH civilization w/lots of trade; women held high positions (!!); disappeared after natural disasters struck
Carthage was originally a colony of what nation...
The Phoenicians
Hebrews were organized into groups called...
In the New Kingdom, Egyptian leaders buried the dead pharaohs where?
Valley of the Kings
City of Meroe (hint: Egypt)
Center for iron, owned by the Kushites (S Egypt)
Merciful leader of Persia...
Cyrus (let subjects keep their beliefs & gov, just needed to pay taxes)
Ruled after Cyrus (Persia), got more land, divided into provinces, standardized money, and built royal road
Founded Daoism
3 schools of thought emerge after Period of the Warring States (post-zhou)
(1) Confucianism; (2) Daoism; (3) Legalism (esp. Qin dynasty)
First culture in Greece was the...
Mycenaeans (had famous war with Troy and used the Trojan Horse--Homer later writes about this)
Of Athens; removed laws that the poor didn't like; estab Council of 500 (advised Assembly)
Who run the businesses in Sparta?
WOMEN (men were in the military)
Council of Elders
Found in Sparta
Hellenstic Culture
The blending of Egypt, Persian, and Indian influences (specifically after Alexander the Great's conquests)
Alexandria, Egypt
Has a great library
Who suggested that the Earth is the center of the universe?
Ptolemy (Greece)
Greece; invented a lot of little machines including screw
Greece; people should live moral life (desire, wealth, etc. are usually bad); clashed with Epicureans
Greece; could only rely on the 5 senses, do things in moderation; clashed with Stoics
Art of Hellenistic age
Gracchus Brothers
Tried to pass laws that would help poor in Rome (assassinated)
Julius Caesar -- popular?
YES, very much so
Kingdom of Aksum
N Africa; conquered Kush & destroyed Meroe; King Ezana becomes CHRISTIAN (!!)
Who reunited Rome?