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43 Cards in this Set

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Vietnam
colonized by: French
When: 1858
Why: good trade port, needed land to compete
Phillipines
colonized by:Spain-->Britain-->Spain-->US
When:1656-->1762-->1763-->1935
Why:good outpost in pacific, natural resources, navy base
Nigeria
colonized by:Britain
When: 1901
Why: Oil, no intention of settling
South Africa
colonized by:Dutch-->English
When:1795
Why:trade routes, natural resources
Otto Von Bismark: the individual
-Prussian Junker (conservative land owning noble)
-Realpolitik (needs of state above all else)
-Chancellor below William 1 (#2 guy but really runs things)
Otto VB: Goals
-unified Germany w/Prussia at head
-strong Germany
-benefit Hohenzollers (Prussian ruling dynasty)
Otto VB: 3 Obstacles overview
-Austria (main power)
-Liberal Diet (liberal legislature in Germany)
-France, etc
Otto VB:Obstacle 1
DEALING WITH THE DIET
-ignored, then dissolved
-bad public image, but just restricts press and dictates budget
Realpolitik
needs of state above all else
Otto VB: Obstacle 2
DEALING WITH AUSTRIA
-forms alliance
-goes to war with denmark
-attacks austria on claims of negating alliance
-dissolves austria-led german confederation, replaces with Prussia
-leaves austria, 4 southern states independant
Otto VB: Obstacle 3
FRANCE
-ems dispatch=letter that started war...manipulation of meetings btwn NapIII and Will(prussia)
-Otto wins, france surrenders
Results of Otto VB:
-Birth of second Reich
-New Legislature
-Bundesrat
-Reichstag
Bundesrat
(upper house)
-selected by rulers of german states
-can veto any reichstag decisions
Reichstag
(lower house)
-composed of all men able to vote
Italy: Important Leaders and goals
GARIBALDI-Red Shirts, wants republic
MAZZINI-founded "young Italy", wanted republic
CAVOUR-Prime Minister, wanted monarchy
Germany: steps in unification
1.Consolidation of Power under Bismarck
2.War with Denmark
3.War with Austria
4.War with France
5.the creation of Kaiser-William I
6.Birth of the second Reich
7.William II tells Bismark to reign
Imperialism
* means of acquisition
Why be imperial?
-ECONOMIC:natural resources of colonies
-POLITICAL: more power if you influence the world
-MILITARY: increase power
Justification of Imperialism
-Social Darwinism
-Paternal View, bringing technology, etc to help natives
Social Darwinism
-Charles Darwin
-recognizes that unwerstern, uncivilized people will be destroyed as a form of natural selection, but not advocating
-western=socially superior
Herbert Spencer
-Social Darwinist
-coined "survival of the fittest"
-with Natural Selection, social aspects of humanity evolve as well (intelligence, ability to reason)
Malthus
-social darwinist
-dont help the poor: fighting evolution/hurting humanity in long run
Francis Galtor
-Intellectual traits are inherrited

-against welfare, insane asylums (dumbing down humanity)
OVERALL IMPERIALISM JUSTIFICATION
two options: kill the heaten or save the heathen

RACISM=justification

-justified because savages are barely human
Mazzini
Young Italy-goal to unite italy as republic
-Nationalist (duh)
-uniting made sense because of common language and history and geography
-set up republic in rome but soon crushed by french miliatry
Cavour
-monarchist, RealPolitik (gov't above all else)
-prime minister of Kingdom of Sardinia, to Victor Emmanuel I
-goal:end Austrian power in Italy, annex Lombardy and Venitia
-deal with Napoleon, brought down Austria, annexed lombardy
Garibaldi
-sought help from Cavour
-raised volunteer force, wore red shirt
-won control of kingdom of two sicilies
-troops from a nervous cavour/emmanual joined with Garribaldi
-gave naples and sicily to victor Emmanuel; VE crowned king of Italy
protectorate
locar rulers left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisers on issues
Sphere of Influence
area in whihc an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges
British rule=
indirect
French rule=
direct
Berlin Conference
European power could not claim land unless they established a gov't office there
Sepoy Rebellion
SEPOYS-Indian soldiers in British service to serve anywhere
-sepoys rebel against new laws undermining hindu relgion, British crushed
-india put under stricter, direct control
China's Challenges:
*Industrial nonrevolutino
*Opium
*Decline of Qing/Taiping rebellion
CChalenge1
Industrial Nonrevolution
-no need for industrialization, while GB did
-doesnt have same technology
CChallenge2
OPIUM
-british brought in exchange for tea, Chinese got addicted
-Opium war; British win
-Treaty of Nanjing: war reparation, make china pay for war, etc
-GB demanded *****EXTRATERRITORIALITY****
Extraterritoriality
british people can live in china only under british laws and not chinese
CCHallenge3
Decline of Qing
-Taiping Rebellion: 30 mil died, peasants rebel
-failed reform efforts
JAPAN fears...
-opium
-forced concessions to GB
-Western Imperialism
-PERRYS SHIPS: fleet of ships going around to show US naval powers (demanded access to china)
Japans attempt1
-relented to US a little
-TREATY OF KANAGAWA (1854)
Extraterritoriality
MFN-us trade has no restrictions
-shogun removed; civil unrest
Japan Attempt2
Meiji Constitution to cope with Western Imperialism
-emperor and legislature
-military growth
-attempt to eliminate class distinctions
-tried to end feudalism
Sino-Japanese War
-clear jap victory
-east vs east/west-->Jap modernizing to survive
-taiwan, ports in china
Russo-Jap War
-Jap wins Koria
-Jap destroys russian navy (everyone ShOcKeD)