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39 Cards in this Set

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Means "Rebirth", a period of European history (1300-1600) when renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, & views of the world.
Renaissance
Began in N. Italy & spread to rest of Europe; led to innovative styles in art, sculpture & architecture.
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential & achievements.
Humanism
Studied classical texts to understand ancient Greek values; popularized classical subjects of history, literature & philosophy called the Humanities.
Renaissance society was concerned with "worldly"/the here and now rather than spiritual/ the hereafter.
Secular
An interest in worldly materialism from the commoner to church leaders including mansions, fine clothing & banquets/dining
The financing of Renaissance art, architecture, sculpture or literature by wealthy church leaders or merchants.
Patrons
Renaissance merchants and wealthy families like the Medicis of Florence, Italy.
A technique common to Renaissance painters which shows 3 dimensions on a flat surface.
Perspective
Technique revived from Classical Greek artists to show depth of field as in a "fish-eye" lens; foreground converges to the horizon & a vanishing point.
Use of ones own native language instead of Latin in speaking & literature to show self-expression & individuality
Vernacular
Ex. Dante used his "native language" of Italian in writing his literature.
Greek term for "No Place", A book by Thomas More attempting to show a model society where greed, corruption, & war is nonexistent & money is not needed for exchange.
Utopia
A Renaissance work in Latin by Thomas More.
Renaissance playwright born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon, England.
William Shakespeare
Playwright who drew upon classical literature for his inspiration & plots; wrote drama and comedy for plays performed in the Globe Theater
A craftsman from Mainz, Germany (1440) who developed a printing press incorporating a number of technologies in a new way.
Johann Gutenberg
Developer of printing press & printer of the 1st complete Bible in 1455, via moveable type.
A pardon which released a sinner from performing the penalty a priest imposed for sins.
Indulgence
Religious pardons for sinners which did not affect God's right to judge; in effect "buying ones way into heaven".
A movement for religious reform which led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the Pope's authority.
Reformation
This religious reform was begun by Martin Luther's "95 Theses" in 1517. Luther concluded that "faith alone" is the key to ones salvation.
A separate religious group developed by Martin Luther and his followers.
Lutherans
This group took Luther's ideas and applied them to society and a new religious order.
German princes who supported Luther and signed a protest against the Pope & his loyal princes.
Protestants
Applies to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches.
A 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler.
Peace of Augsburg
War between the Protestant Princes and Charles V was settled by this agreement to let each states ruler decide on the official religion.
To "set aside" a legal document as if it were never legal in the first place. A Pope could do this to end a marriage.
Annul
The Pope refused to do this for Henry VIII to get free of Catherine of Aragon who could not bear him a child. Henry petitioned Parliament to make him not the pope the official head of the church.
The official Church of England
headed by Elizabeth I in 1559.
Anglican
Elizabeth I tried to make a religious peace between protestants and catholics by establishing the Church of England which had elements of both denominations.
A doctrine by Martin Luther saying that God has known from the beginning of time who will be saved.
Predestination
Doctrine by Luther saying men & women are sinful by nature and humans cannot earn salvation as God chooses a very few people "the elect" to save.
The religion based on John Calvin (1517)
Calvinism
based on his book "Institutes of the Christian Religion" which discussed ideas on God, salvation, and human nature.
Members of the Protestant Church governed by presbuters (elders) and founded on the teachings of John Knox.
Presbyterians
The Scottish preacher John Knox (1559) used Calvin's ideas in using Presbyters/elders to govern the church whose members deposed Mary Queen of Scots & became known as ____________.
Greek meaning "baptise again"; this religious group felt persons who were baptized as children should be rebaptized as adults (who could decide & understand the significance of the sacrement)
Anabaptists
A religious group who only baptized adults, were Pacivists, and wanted separation of church & state. Ex. Mennonites, Amish who influenced Quakers & Baptists
A 16th Century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Catholic Reformation or Counter Reformation
Movement headed by Ignatius Loyola,& Popes Paul III and Paul IV who took actions to reform & renew the Catholic Church from within.
Members of the "Society of Jesus" created by the pope and Ignatius focusing on founding schools in Europe, converting non-christians to Catholicism, & stopping the spread of Protestantism.
Jesuits
These missionaries zeal helped keep Poland and southern Germany Catholic.
A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers.
Council of Trent
Decreed that the Church's interpretation of the Bible was final, Faith & good works for salvation not faith alone, Bible & Church guided Christian life, & Indulgences were valid expressions of faith but their false selling was banned.
the revival of art, literature, & learning in Europe in the 14th -16th centuries
Renaissance
a person who has learned much through study
Scholar
a concern with the needs and interests of human beings rather than religious ideas
Humanism
a wealthy person who supports artists
Patron
a person who makes statues out of wood, stone, marble, or other material
sculptor
the study of stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies
Astronomy
a weight hung so that it swings freely back and forth; often used to control a clock's movement
Pendulum
an explanation of how and why something happens, usually based on scientific study
Theory
to change for the better
Reform
to speak out against or act against something
Protest
a person who is against the teachings of a church
Heretic
the taking away of a person's right of membership in a Christian Church leading to loss of salvation and eternity in hell. This would free all the King's Vassals from their legal duty to serve him.
Excommunication
Papal law in which many sacraments and religious services could not be performed in the King's lands; as Christians, the King's subjects believed w/o the sacraments they might be doomed to hell
Interdict
a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a
sin(s)
Indulgence
Being illiterate and lacking understanding of laws of nature caused many people of the Middle Ages to have irrational beliefs which the Medieval Church frowned upon
Superstition
the appointment of religious officials (bishops, priests) by Kings or Nobles; the Pope hated this practice
Lay Investiture