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19 Cards in this Set

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The conquering of native americans by the Spanish which began with Hernando Cortes & solders arriving
in 1519,& conquering them by
1521.
What was the Spanish Conquest?
p. 222
Spanish captured Montesuma made slaves of the Incas, exported their gold, silver and emeralds and destroyed Tenochtitlan, building Mexico City on site.
The Aztec capital city on the present site of Mexico City founded in 1325 A.D.
Where is Tenochtitlan?
Montezuma became ruler of this city in 1502 A.D.
In 1929, a new political party arose in Mexico which introduced democracy, land reforms & maintained political stability in most of 20th C.
What is the (PRI) Institutional Revolutionary Party?
Voted out of office with 1997 election revealing which revealed fraud, corruption & intolerance of opposition.
People of mixed Spanish and Native American heritage, from "Mexica" the name for Aztecs.
What are Mestizoes?
In spite of Spanish cultural diffusion and intermarriage of Spanish with Indians, the indigenous culture has survived.
U.S. owned factories in Mexico that assemble imported materials into finished products that are then exported, mostly to the U.S.A. (e.g., electronics,
clothing, and furniture)
What are Maquiladoras?
p. 220
These U.S. owned factories in Mexico are used to reduce the amount of money it costs to produce the product.
A trade agreement between Mexico and U.S.A. that created a huge zone of cooperation with gradual reduction of Import Tariffs on Manufactured goods until it reachs zero.
What is N.A.F.T.A?
(North American Free Trade Agreement) p. 220
Used to stimulate trade between the U.S. & Mexico by phasing out tariffs.
A place from which important ideas originate and spread.
What is a Culture Hearth?
p. 222.
A heartland or place of origin of a major culture
Central America declared independence from Mexico in 1823.Mexico declared indepencece from Spain in 1821. The Central American coutries became El Salvdore,
Nicaraqua, Costa Rica, Quatemala, Honduras and later Panama which broke off from Colombia & Belize from
British Honduras.
What are the United Provinces of Central America?

p. 223
By 1830's the _____ split into separate countries of El Salvador, Nicaraqua, Costa Rica, Guatemala, & Honduras. Later, Panama and Belize became independent countries.
A project started by the French and completed by the Americans which connected the Atlantic with the Pacific Oceans with a system of canals, locks, natural & man-made lakes in the Isthmus of Panama.
What is the Panama Canal?

p. 226.
This canal through the isthmus is the crossroads of international trade and innovations. It also was important in the strategy of naval warfare.
Music that originated in Trinidad that combines musical elements from Africa, Spain and Carribean. Uses steel drums & guitars with improvised lyrics.
What is Calypso? p. 227
Steel drum music of Trinidad and Tobago.
A style of music that developed in Jamaica in 1960's made popular by Bob Marley.
What is Reggae? p. 227
Carribean music that lures tourists and creates jobs for residents.
Jobs available outside official channels w/o benefits or protections for workers. Ex. street vendors, shoe-shining, et. al. which provide people w/ nontaxable small income.
What is Informal Economy?
p. 227.
money from non-taxable jobs or street vending.
An advanced Native American population of the Quechan peoples of S. America who built a civilizaton in the Andes Mtns. of Peru in the 15th C. & 16th C.
Who were the Incas?

p. 230.
By 1500 this empire stretched some 2,500 miles along the Andes mtns of Western South America.
The language of the Inca still spoken in the Andes highlands.
What is Quechua? p. 231
This Incan language was almost lost since Spainish forced the native americans to speak Spanish and worship as Roman Catholics.
An Economic Common Market that began operating in the Southern cone of South American in 1995. Its goals were: 1. to make member economies more stable 2. to increase trade w/n region & thereby decrease dependability by unstable global markets. 3. To channel profits from an improved economy to those people & groups who most need helop.
What is Mercosur?
p.234.
The term formed from Southern Common Market.with members including: Brazil, Paraquay, Argentina, Uruquay.
Spain and Portugal agree in 1495 to separate colonization of S. America by the Papal Line of Demarcation drawn in 1493.
What is the Treaty of Tordesillas?

p. 236.
the line of longitude would separate the Portuguese in the eastern part of S.A. fr om the west area which was Spains.
The most colorful feast day in Brazil.
What is Carnaval?
Rio de Janeiro hold parades with colorful costumes similar to New Orleans Mardi
Gras.
A Brazilian Dance with American influences.
What is the Samba?
brailian dance with African influence
A martial art and dance that developd in Brazil from Africn origins. Angolans came to Brazil by Portuguese
What is Capoira?
Angolans who were taken to Brazil by Portuguese brought this martial art & dance with them.