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14 Cards in this Set

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Largest desert region of N. Africa from the Atlantic to Red Sea, small part sand dunes & large part flat, gray wasteland of rock & gravel(pavement).
What is the Sahara?
Desertification is causing the southern edge to extend yearly into Sahel region of N. Africa
Land located at S. edge of Sahara Desert of flat, gray wasteland & gravel.
What is the Sahel?
p. 213.
land becoming desert in southern edge of Sahara
Grassy plains w/ some mountainous highlands & swampy tropical stretches.
What is the Savannah?
covers 40% of Africa dotted w/ trees & grass covered; has thin topsoil due to alternating dry & rainy seasons
The belief that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural objects.
What is Animism?
African peoples are monotheistic with beliefs that spirits are present in all things & nature and take the form of souls of their ancestors.
A West African storyteller.
What is a Griot?
These storytellers kept the tribes history alive through oral history parent to child & generation to generation
An African people who lived in what is now Nigeria between A.D.200. First Africans to smelt iron for tools & weapons.
Who were the Nok?
p. 217.
Earliest known African culture inhabited lands between Niger & Benue rivers.
Made sculptures of terra cotta w/ "elongated style"
An ancient trade city uncovered by archaeologists in 1977; located on a Niger River tributary who made pottery, copper hair ornaments, clay toys, glass beads, stone bracelets & iron knives.
What is Djenne-Djeno?
p. 219.
Ruled from 250 B.C. to A.D. 1100 in W. Africa; built round reed houses of mud & thatch, fished, herded cattle, & raised rice in floodplains; imported copper, gold, & salt from other Niger River tribes.
The act of moving from one place to settle in another.
What is Migration?
pp. 62, 220
This occurs from environmental, economic, & political factors.
Conditions that draw people to another location or cause people to leave their home lands and migrate to another region.
What are Push-Pull Factors?
ex. abundant land, safety, freedom or conversely little land, war, & bondage/political controls
Groups of people living in the savannah region south of Sahara (now SE Nigeria) who
shared cultural
characteristics of language, pastoralism, iron-making & river-bank farming.
Who were the Bantu-Speaking Peoples?
Believed to descend from Noks, method of slash & burn farming forced their continuous movement along Congo River & rain forests.
Legend traces the Ethiopian Dynasty and this Kingdom to the son of Solomon & Queen of Sheba which lasted until 20th C. until their last ruler Haile Selassie died in 1975. Under Zoskales (1st ruler) it seized lands along Red Sea & Blue Nile in Africa.
What was Aksum?
p. 225.
Kingdom in present day Eritrea & Ethiopia which exhanged ivory for silk,spices, leading to colonies of farmers & traders. Used terraces, irrigation canals, dams, cysterns, stone building w/o mortar, & Steles (stone pillars)
Aksum's chief seaport near Massawa recieved traders from Egypt, Persia, India, & Roman Empire trading for salt, rhino horns, tortoise shells, emeralds & gold.
What was Adulis?
p. 226.
Exported cloth, glass, wine, olive oil, iron , & copper.
Ruled Aksum between A.D. 325 and 360 as a strong, authoritative ruler who conquered (p.d.) Yemen on Arabian Peninsula & Kush Kingdom in 330A.D.
What was Ezana?
p. 226.
Conquered the Kushites and burned capital of Meroe to ground.
Steplike ridges constructed on mountain slopes to help soil retain water and prevent erosion of soil is heavy rains.
What are Terraces?
p. 228.
step-like ridges on steep slopes that reduce erosion & promote soil productivity