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50 Cards in this Set

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Mauryan Dynasty
- A classical Indian dynasty that developed out of a political void created by the failed invasions of Persian emperor Darius- then controlled by the kingdom of Magadha for two centuries
-Flourished during the late 320s BCE when Chandragupta Maurya took over and laid the foundation for a centralized, unified government that included all of India from the Indus to the Ganges Rivers.
-Ashoka(ruled 268-232 BCE) conquered the kingdom of Kalinga through bloody battles, uniting the entire subcontinent; better known as a governor than as a conqueror.
-Ashoka built irrigation systems for agriculture, constructed roads for trade, and travel, supported Buddhism, and encouraged religious tolerance
- Ashoka's death led to decline of empire
Gupta Dynasty
-Chandra Gupta laid the foundations for empire by making alliances with powerful families in the Ganges; he conquered many; others chose to form tributary alliances with the Guptas
-Government, both policy and administration, was left to the locals; Gupta did not impose uniform laws;brought stability and prosperity
-Decline caused by invasions by the White Huns(nomadic people from Central Asia) -- dynasty continued in name only
-Indian belief system popularized by Vardhamana Mahavira ("the great hero"). Disciples referred to Mahavira as Jina("the conqueror") and called themselves the Jains.
-practiced ahimsa- nonviolence to living things or their souls(belief late impacted Hinduism and Buddhism). Extremists swept ground as they walked to avoid harming insects (souls)
-Not practical, but attractive - because if all creatures possessed a soul, there should not be rigid social classes( especially popular among lower classes)
-About 534 BCE, Siddharta Gautama, a Hindu of the Brahmin caste, left his family to live like a holy man
-After meditating 49 days under the bo tree, claimed he understood the problem of suffering and how to eliminate it;became the Buddha("the enlightened one)
-Dharma is the combination of two basic beliefs: Noble Truths-all life involves suffering; desire is the cause of suffering; eliminate desire and you will eliminate suffering. Dharma can be achieved by following the Noble Eightfold Path -- right belief, right resolve, right speech, right behavior, right occupation, right effort, right contemplation, and right meditation
-Goal: to achieve Nirvana(a state of spiritual independence)
-Appealed to lower classes because it de-emphasized class distinctions
-cultural diffusion responsible for the spread of ideas-- in Japan developed into Zen Buddhism.
-World's oldest organized religion, originated in India
-Spoke to needs and interests of average people
-Bhagvad Gita("Song of the Lord"), a brief poem composed by many unidentified authors, outlines what Hinduismn expects of individuals, and the path to salvation
-Salvation is achieved by individuals who meet responsibilities by obeying laws of their caste, not their material success
-Hindu ethics: dharma-obey laws(religious and moral), artha-practice honesty in economy, kama-take pleasure in social, physical, and sexual activities, moksha- salvation of the soul
-A person is reincarnated on the basis of behavior in a previous life into one of the four castes, and later a fifth, untouchables)
-Limited spread beyond India
-Language combined Greek and Minoan
-Built impressive stone fortresses and palaces. Palaces dominated Mycenaean cities, as was the case in Minoan Crete(Palace of Knossos); however the palace plan differed from that of the Minoans. By 1200 BCE, the great citadels possessed impressive fortifications. Mos likely a king ruled over a small area from each palace.
-Their conflict with Troy was presented by Homer in the Iliad
-A Greek word meaning city
- Attracted large populations because it offered safety;became center of trade
-levied taxes; took farming surplus from countryside to feed inhabitants of polis
-Political models could include, but were not limited to, monarchies and tyrannical rulers
- A city state in classical Greece- conquered neighbors and forced them into servitude
-Helots-bound to land;role-to provide food; outnumbered Spartans ten to one
-Spartans were characteristically simple, frugal and austere
-known for military talent;from age seven all boys lived in barracks, and trained;served in military at age 20
-Women forced into strenuous exercise- physical fitness was associated with bearing strong children
-A city state in Ancient Greece whose government was based on democratic principles. However, only free adult males could participate in government
-Debt forced many poor farmers into slavery; gap between rich and poor widened. Aristocrat Solon became a great mediator between the classes:aristocrats kept land and canceled debts and forbade debt slaver for the poor.
-Pericles encouraged democracy, public works, and development of science, philosophy, poetry, and the arts.
-World's first democracy(although women and slaves could not vote -- only approximately 40000 of the 450000 inhabitants of the polis were eligible to vote); had a great impact on the development of later governments
Macedonian Empire
-Supplied Greeks with grain timber and natural resources in exchange for olives, wine and finished products
-Alexander led an army of approximately 37000 to invade the Persian empire
-By 331 BCE, Alexander controlled Ionia Antolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Mesopotamia
-When Alexander died, the empire was divided among his top three generals.
Hellenistic Empire
-The period during the reign of Alexander the Great and the subsequent division into three large states(each led by one of Alexander's generals) is known as the Hellenistic age(after Greece, or Hellas)
-Greek culture spread to areas from Greece to India and affected all areas politically, socially, and economically
-Egypt(under Ptolemy), the wealthiest of the colonies, organized agriculture(irrigation), industry, tax collection
-Capital of empire: Alexandria, with a pivotal location on the Mediterranean, could harbor 1200 ships; home to the world's largest library
-Former Persian Empire (led by Seleucus), impressive because it was geographically the farthest reach of the empire, had the most communication between Greece and Mediterranean world.
-Most famous of Pan Hellenistic festivals
-Trade between Greek poleis fostered a strong sense of community and shared traditions(gods, language, and games)
-Different areas, including Crete, claim they were responsible for the inception of the games, but the first traditional games began in 776 BCE - All parts of Greece sent their best athletes to compete in contests of speed, strength, skill
-Events included foot races, long jump, boxing, wrestling, javelin tossing, and discus throwing, and took place every four years for more than 100 years and then disappeared.
-Winners received olive wreaths at the games and hero status at home
Greek Philosophy-Socrates
-Socrates developed a method of questioning aimed at exposing ethics and morality through a series of increasingly difficult questions; his student Plato recorded his thoughts in a series of writings called the dialogues
-Socrates suggested that honor was more important than wealth and fame and stressed the importance of personal integrity: "The Unexamined life is not worth living"
-Charged with encouraging immorality, Socrates was tried by Athenian citizens in 399 BCE. He was sentenced to death and forced to drink hemlock, a poison.
Greek Philosophy-Aristotle
-Plato believed that everything was based on forms or ideas. Definitions were not absolute because virtue, honesty, courage, truth and beauty all mean different things in different situations;so there is the imperfect reality of the definition in each individual situation and true definitions, which existed in the world of forms and ideas
-Impacted the development of the Republic in Rome
-Aristotle, a disciple of Plato(teacher of Aristotle), rejected the theory of forms and ideas, he believed people could depend on their senses and reason to answer the mysteries of the world.
Hellenistic Philosophies(i)
-Epicureans suggested that individual needs could be met through reflection
-Epicureans said pleasure is greatest good; they defined pleasure as an inner peace that could protect them from the pressure of the Hellenistic World
Hellenistic Philosophies (II)
-Skeptics doubted the existence of absolute certain knowledge and so did not espouse strong political, social, or moral beliefs. They taught that people should abandon their search for certain answers and find an inner peace
-Stoics believed human beings were a part of a universal family;people must help each other through difficulties and deal with stress and anxiety by finding inner peace
Roman Republic
-Republic- a form of government whose head of state is usually a president
- in 509 BCE aristocratic republic replaced monarchy; built Roman forum, a political and civic center housing temples and public buildings for government business
-Republican constitution gave power over executive duties(civil and military power) to two consuls elected by an assembly and dominated by aristocracy(patricians)who served one year terms; Senate dominated decision-making process
-Tension because interests of the lower class(plebians) were not represented led to the development of tribunes (consisting of officials elected by plebians), which had the right to intervene in all political affairs and veto unjust laws
-During times of civil or military crisis, a dictator was appointed with absolute power for a six-month term to restore peace and stability --- elongated the viability of the republic
Rome: From Republic to Empire
-87 BCE: invasion and subsequent occupation of Rome led by Marius until his death
-Sulla took over and labeled state enemies and encouraged slaughter; civil war and a reign of terror ensued that lasted five years and resulted in over 10,000 deaths
-Sulla died in 78 BCE and left a conservative legislature as his legacy, which weakened the power of the lower classes and returned power to the wealthy
-Latifunda -- land conquered by the Roman Empire, controlled by wealthy elites, and organized into plantations -- increased class tensions between rich and poor
Julius Caesar
-Named himself dictator of the Roman Empire (for life, not six months as was the past precedent)
-Sought to build a sense of community in Rome after civil war; spent large sums of money on gladiators, huge armies, and large-scale building projects employing Roman citizens;extended Roman citizenship to outreaches of empire(Gaul); and consolidated government
-Aristocratic conspirators, upset by loss of power and wealth, plotted to execute Caesar in 44 BCE in an attempt to restore the republic. 13 years of civil conflict followed
-Octavian (later called Augustus) defeated Mark Anthony and became sole ruler. He ruled as an emperor while retaining republican forms
Expansion of Roman Empire
During the republic the empire included Italy, Greece, Syria, Gaul, most of the Iberian penninsula, and outposts in North Africa and Antoloia; Augustus added most of southeastern Europe and most of North Africa and increased control in Anatolia and southwestern Asia; at its height the empire included Britain and all of the land surrounding the northern and southern coast of the Mediterranean from Iberia to Mesopotamia
-As Roman soldiers diplomats, governors, and merchants settled throughout the empire, spread Roman culture, and encouraged development of local politics and economies, cities such as Paris, Lyons, Cologne, Mainz, London, Toledo, and Segovia sprang up
-Augustus's rule brought a period known as the pax romana (Roman peace) which lasted for two and a half centuries and allowed the empire to experience a golden age
Roman Roads
-Roman engineers developed an intricate process for building roads -- prepared a deep bed, edged roads with curbs, provided for drainage, topped with large flat paving stones
-Main roads were 20 to 26 feet wide -- allowing for two-way traffic; narrow roads through mountains were on average 6 to 10 feet wide to facilitate travel, trade, and military passage
-Milestones were placed along the road to facilitate the imperial postal system
-Linked all parts of the empire: one highway stretched over 1554 miles connected the Black Sea to the North Sea; another stretched over 2983 miles and ran parallel to the coast of North Africa, with many run-offs to transport supplies, goods, and solders further into Africa
-Linked with Silk Roads to create an intricate trade network connecting western Europe with the Far East
Roman Law
-Roman law was first recorded in approximately 450 BCE. The Twelve Tables were meant to provide a standard system of law throughout the early empire
-Jurists worked together to standardize interpretations of the laws and develop a definition of justice
-Established basic rights of defendants: they were innocent until proven guilty and could challenge their accusers in court
-Power still ultimately rested in the hands of the judge, who had the authority to set aside laws deemed to be unfair
Trade in the Mediterranean
Grain from latifundia in North Africa, Egypt, Sicily, supported large cities in the empire and was also used for trade with Greece(for olives and vines) and with Syria and Palestine (for fruits, nuts, and wool fabrics); trade facilitated crop specialization throughout the climatically diverse empire
-The sea supported trade between ports from Syria and Palestine to Spain and North Africa
-Roman army and navy kept the seas safe for the transportation of goods -- the Romans called the Mediterranean mare nostrum (our sea)
-Merchants were also responsible for promoting cultural diffusion and a sense of community throughout the empire
-Major teachings: devotion to God and love for fellow man
- His message "the kingdom of God is at hand" seemed to threaten Rome because it divided allegiances
-After the crucifixion, devotion to him grew rapidly; called the Christ(Greek for Messiah, or the "annointed one")
Early Christianity
-Christians would not worship false gods of the Roman Empire
-Worshipped a single God
-Appealed to the lower classes (urban dwellers and women)
-Taught equality of the sexes and encouraged men and women to achieve great things
Silk Road
Southeastern Asia, China, and India traded: silk and spices west to consumers in central Asia, Iran, Arabia, and the Roman empire
-Spices were important because they had numerous purposes(food preservative and falvoring and pharmaceutical)
-Central Asia traded horses, jade, and magic potions west
-Trade route that connected the Han and Roman empires in classical times
-Facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, and disease
-Following the fall of the Han and Roman empires, the route was revived in post-classical times, first by the Tang and Song and later by the Mongols
Fall of Roman Empire
Problems;internal opposition, power struggle (26 people claimed the throne), generals struggled for power and died violently, empire was simply too large, epidemics
-Diocletian divided the empir einto two districts: eastern(Antolia, Syria, Egypt, and Greece) and western(Italy, Gaul, Spain, Britain, and North Africa)
-Germans migrating from the north attacked the western half; especially powerful were the Visigoths
-Hun invasions, led by Atilla, pressured other Germanic tribes to invade: Ostrogoths, Vandals, and Franks
Germanic Invasions
Ended imperial Roman power in western Europe by 476 CE ; power later shifts to Byzantium in the east
-Nomadic Germanic tribes- Visigoths, Huns (led by Atilla), Ostrogoths, Vandals, and Franks -- encountered little effective resistance
-Controleld the western half of the Roman empire: Italy, Gaul, Spain, Britain, and North Africa
-Led to decentralized rule and to the establishment of the feudal system.
Early Byzantine Empire
-Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity in 313 CE. He then relocated the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in the east because the eastern Mediterranean was wealthier and allowed him to spy on enemies in the East
-With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the eastern half became known as the Byzantine Empire and included lands in Greece, the Balkans, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and northeastern Africa
-The young empire boasted roads and communication systems
-Emperors were above the law, claiming divine rights
-Emperor used political power to sway public opinion regarding religious issues
Justinian's Code
-Justinian(reigned 527-565 CE) was a very important emperor during the early Byzantine empire; his wife, Theodora, advised him on political, religious, and diplomatic issues
-Built great public works, including the Hagia Sophia, a cathedral that became a mosque following the Ottoman Turks' conquest of Constantinople; exemplifies architecture past and present
-After a systematic review of all laws of the Republic, Justinian codified Roman law, keeping legal principles of ancient Rome
-Published Corpus iurius civilis (Body of the Civil law)
-Justinian's code has remained an inspiration for civil law codes
Byzantine economy and society
-Lower Danube region was the breadbasket of the empire
-Byzantine government prevented wealthy classes from seizing peasants' lands. The wealthy could buy exemptions from taxes
-Craftsmen were highly respected for their handiwork in the areas of glassware, gems, and jewelry (including gold and silver), and mosaics (used to decorate churches)
-Architectural gems - Hagia Sophia (first a church, later a mosque)
-Byzantine government recognized the importance of the silk industry( a trade borrowed from the Chinese) and subsequently closely supervised its production and sale
-Trade was very important to the empire as a direct result of its location; merchants were especially well respected
Legacy of Classical Greece
Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Byzantine Empire
-Modeled after Greece's, the empire's government-organized school system, offering basic reading, writing, and grammar, followed by classical Greek literature, philosophy and science provided an educated workforce for the bureaucracy
-Byzantine scholars, like Greek scholars, focused on literature, history, and philosophy; their legacy was the preservation of Greek culture
-Byzantine preservation of Greek culture was transmitted back to Western world during the Crusades
Fall of the Byzantine Empire
-Turks invaded the east and conquered Constantinople(later renamed it Istanbul)
-Byzantines lost Antolia(their breadbasket), which led to their ultimate demise (they had no food source)
Byzantium and Russia
-Russia created several trade centers including Kiev along the Dnieper River
-In 989 CE, Prince Vladimir of Kiev converted to Orthodox Christianity as a result of his exposure to Byzantium; his subjects followed
-Other Byzantine influences included the Cyrillic alphabet, writing, codified laws, and art and architecture(for example, onion domes)
-After Constantinople fell, Russia named Moscow the world's third ROme-- insinuating that they had inherited the imperial power, as the Byzantines had inherited it from the Romans
-Center of Orthodox Christianity shifts northward
Long-Distance Trade
-Specialized labor and efficient means of transformation encouraged trade between groups such as the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians as early as 3500 BCE
-Sumerians, who needed natural resources, traded regularly with the Harappan society by 2300 BCE
-Sumerians, shipped woolen textiles, leather goods, sesame oil, and jewelry to India in exchange for copper, ivory, pearls, and semiprecious stones
-Egyptian pharaohs imported cedar, a sign of wealth, for tombs
Spread of Epidemic Diseases
-Smallpox and measles were the most pervasive; bubonic plague also broke out
- Problem: epidemics devestated communities because they had no immunities and no medicines to fight against them
- Smallpox devastated the Roman Empire -- reduced population by approximately one-quarter during the second century BCE
-Epidemics appeared later in China
-Epidemics led to social change; trade declined, and people learned to be self-sufficient
-About 610, Muhammad had a transformational spiritual experience and travelled through the Arabian Peninsula proclaiming that he was the last prophet of Allah
-He believed in one God(Allah)
-Allah's words were given to Muhammad and collected by his followers and compiled in the Quran
-Hadith, a record of the sayings attributed to Muhammad and accounts of the prophet's deeds, serves as a guide for interpretation of the Quran and for social and legal customs
-Muhammad's journey to Mecca became a symbolic starting point of the official Islamic calendar and a religious pilgrimage for the followers to Islam.
Expansion of Islam
- Rapid expansion in the century after Muhammad's death was the work of early caliphs who spread the word through pilgrimages
-Between 633 and 637, Muslims took control of Byzantine Syria and Palestine and seized most of Mesopotamia from the Sassanids
-During the 640s the Muslims conquered Byzantine Egypt and North Africa
-By 651 Muslims controlled Hindu India, northwestern Africa, and the Iberian Peninsula
-Muslims allowed conquered people (especially Christians and Jews) to maintain their own religious practices but required those who did not convert to Islam to pay a tax (jizya)
-Positions of power and authority were reserved for Muslims
Abbasid Dynasty
-In 750 the Umayyad Dynasty ended after a rebellion in Persia led by Abu al-Abbas who founded the Abbasid dynasty, the main source of power in the dar-al-Islam
-Abbasids, headquartered in Baghdad, allowed Muslims as well as Persians, Egyptians, and Mesopotamians to rise to the positions of power and wealth
-The empire continued to grow mostly as a result of independent military forces, not military conquest led by the caliphs
-Focused energy on ruling their empire, which included a variety of linguistic, cultural, religious, and ethnic groups. Trade arrangements held the empire together
-Officials included ulama, religious experts, and qadis, judges; both resolved local disputes and set moral standards
Trade within the Eastern Hemisphere
-Commercial centers in Nishapur, Bukhura, and Samarkand facilitated the revival of trade over the Silk Road (perpetuated by Muslims)
-Overland trade was conducted by camel caravan(camels are better suited to deserts than horses or donkeys)
-Caravanseries provided lodging, food, and water for traveling merchants and their animals
-Technological advances such as the compass, the lateen sail, and the astrolabe led to increasing travel in the Reda Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean
-Abbasids encouraged larger-scale trade by reinstituting letters of credit-sakk(checks, an idea later used in Europe)
The Quran and Women
-The Quran helped and hurt women
-Improved the security of women in Arabian society: outlawed female infanticide and ruled that dowries go to brides (not husbands)
-Described women as honorable individuals equal to men, not property
-Both the Quran and Sharia emphasized male dominance: descent through the male line, male inheritance, strict control of women by male guardians
-Social customs were influenced by Islamic beliefs: men were permitted to take up four wives , women were veiled in public
Influences on the Dar-Al Islam(Persian, Indian, and Greek)
-Arabic term referring to the "house of Islam" and the lands under Islamic rule
-Persian influences: administrative techniques; ideas of kingship(greatly influenced caliphs); Persian, the language of literature, poetry, history, and political thought (for example, the Arabian Nights)
-Indian influences:mathematics, Arabic?Hindi numbers, symbol for zero, algebra, trigonometry, geometry
-Greek influences: philosophy, science, medical writings (especially Plato, and Aristotle).Arabic libraries and museums held translated Greek and Roman works
Islam in northern India
-Muslim forces reached India by the mid-seventeenth century
-Muslim merchants reached the northern and southern coasts of India; Islam was spread easily using connections established through relationships with Arabs and Persians prior to Muhammad
-Migrations and invasions of Turkish-speaking people from central Asia
-Mahmud Ghazni, the Turkish leader of Afghanistan, destroyed hundreds of Hindu and Buddhist sites: Buddhism's decline ironically did not tarnish Islam's reputation with Indians
-Sultan ruled Punjab to the Ganges Valley from 1206 to 1526
Sui Dynasty
-After centuries of turmoil following the Han dynasty, the Sui emerged to restore peace and order
-Built a strong central government with work done by peasants
-Public works projects included palaces, granaries, and repair of defensive walls; most elaborate project was the Grand Canal
-Grand Canal: a series of artifical waterways that connected Hangzhou to Chang'as(almost 2000 kilometers) , said to be forty paces wide with service roads running one either side. These waterways accounted for large expenditures from the government treasury; money came from taxes and dividends from Grand Canal, which linked northern and southern economies and the people of China reaped its benefits for years to come
-610s: rebellions broke out in northern China
-618:emperor Sui Yangdi was assassinated and dynasty ended
Tang Dynasty
-Restored peace and stability after the fall of the Sui dynasty
-Second emperor, Tang Taizong (627-649), saw himself as a Confucian ruler. His successes led to belief that this period was unusually prosperous and peaceful. He built impressive capital at Chang'an
-Maintained empire through a system of roads with horses, human runners, inns, postal stations, and stables
-Equitable distribution of agricultural land kept land out of the hands of wealthy elite
-Government jobs in extensive bureaucracy were merit based, determined through a series of civil examinations
-Military conquests included Manchuria, Tibet, Korea, and the northern part of Vietnam
Song Dynasty
-Followed the Tang Dynasty; first emperor, Song Taizu, started policy of distrust of military leaders- focused on civil service exams (based on Confucian philosophy), industry, education, and the arts
-Financial problems faced by the Song: bureaucracy too big
-Military problems: scholar bureaucrats' limited military experience led Song to military failures
Technological Development of Tang and Song Dynasties
-Advances were made possible as a result of abundant food supplies
-High-quality porcelain- produced as a result of firing with glazes - became a utensil and a work of art; later diffused to other societies
-Metallurgical technologies: iron and steel were made stronger by using coke instead of coal to get a higher furnace temperature
-Military advances: gunpowder ( a mixture of charcoal, saltpeter, sulfur, and arsenic) was ultimately used effectively in military battles
-Printing technology: thanks to movable type, texts were produced faster, cheaper, and in greater quantities
-Developed in response to the growing popularity of Buddhism
-Scholars of the Song dynasty combined their studies of Confucian beliefs with the writing of Buddhism; continuation of civil service examination staffed government positions
-Buddhism was appealing because it offered a tradition of logical thought as well as a conversation regarding issues such as nature, the soul, and the relationship between the individual and the cosmos
-Neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi (1130-1200) wrote Family Ritual, a detailed set of instructions for weddings, funerals, and other family ceremonies stressing appropriate personal behavior and social harmony
-Neo-Confucianism is important because it shows the influence that Buddhism had on Chinese society and throughout East Asia over a long period
Early Japan
-Earliest inhabitants of Japan, nomadic peoples from northeastern Asia came with their language, culture, and religion
-An agricultural society inspired by Tang China, instituted a series of reforms to centralize power. Nara was built as a replica of Chang'an
-Japan fused their traditional Shinto beliefs with Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism
-heian period -- power centralized in Fujiwara family; boys only received a formal education based on Chinese values; women contributed to Japanese literature (Lady Murasaki's Tale of Ganji, for example)
-Decline resulted from a failure of the equal-field system; land became concentrated in the hands of a small group of wealthy elite
Medieval Japan
-Includes the Kamakura and Muromachi periods
-characterized by decentralized political power in which regional warlords (daimyo) controlled land and economy(Chinese-style bureaucracy was abandoned)
-Valued military talent and discipline. Samurai (mounted warriors) played an important role in Japanese society; they observed bushido (the way of the warrior), which emphasized the importance of loyalty to the warrior's lord
-Medieval period ended by Tokugawa dynasty, which centralized power and unified Japan in the sixteenth century
-Similarly European Feudalism also valued warriors (knights) and the way of the warrior(chivalry-- although in Europe chivalry took on more of a societal code)