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86 Cards in this Set

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Delivery of O2, nutrients
Removal of CO2, wastes
Maintenance of temperature
Blood clotting
Protection from pathogens
Maintenance of pH balance are the functions of What?
Functions of the circulatory system.
Where does the left half of the heart pump?
To the body. Systemic circuit.
Where does the right half of the heart pump?
To the lungs. Pulmonary circuit
What carries blood away from the heart.
Thick smooth muscle layer
Arteries
What are tiny arteries
Arterioles
What are Squamous cell epithelial tubes
Turnover of nurtients/wastes happen here.
Capillaries
Tiny Veins
Venules
What carries blood toward the heart
One-way valves to assist flow
Veins
Without Blood Condition
Insufficient O2 carrying capacity.
Not enough functional RBCs
Not enough hemoglobin in RBCs
Usually a symptom of some other disorder
Anemia
Types of anemia
Idiopathic (of unknown orgin, unique to the individual)
Nutritional
Iron defieciency
Folic acid deficeincy
B12 deficiency (can lead to pernicious anemia)
Other nutritional deficiencies (protein, copper)
ARE CAUSES OF WHAT?
Nutritional Anemia
What is Blood loss from ulcers, endometriosis, fibroids, trauma, etc.
Hemorrhagic Anemia
What is Blood broken down. Premature destruction of RBCs
Sickle cell, allergic reaction, malaria
Hemolytic Anemia
What is it when Bone marrow is suppressed.
Cancer, autoimmune disease, renal failure, radiation, poisoning?
Aplastic Anemia
Ulcers, Kidney disease, Hepatitis, Acute intection, Leukemia, Lymphoma are what?
Secondary Anemias
Pallor
Dyspnea (Shortness of Breath
Palpitations
Fatigue
Intolerance to cold
Lack of Oxygen in body
Signs and Symptoms of Anemia
Massage for Anemia?
Depends on the underlying cause.
Massage temporarily boosts RBC count.
Idiopathic may respond well
Nutritional will not see any improvement
Rule out contraindication disorders
Watch for heart problems in extreme cases
What is Embolism?
Traveling Clot
What is Thrombus?
Lodged Clot
Where do Clots occur?
Wherever platelets find a rough surface inside a blood vessel, or wherever blood does not flow freely.
What is Pulmonary Embolism?
Destination for any clots that form on the venous side of the systemic circuit.
What are the Risk Factors of Pulmonary Embolism?
DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosus)
Pregnancy
Bed Rest
Surgery (especially for hip fractures)
Cardiovascular disease
Birth control pills.
Signs and symptoms of Pulmonary Embolism?
Often silent until damage has occurred; then dyspnea, chest pain, coughing.
What can land anywhere except the lungs; starts in arteries of systemic circuit, travels until vessels are too small to letit pass.
Is usually a complication of atherosclerosis
Can be related to intection, valve damage, atrial fibrillation.
Can be clot, bone fragment, cluster of cells, air bubble...
Arterial Embolism
Kidney damage, stroke, heart attack, depending on destination are signs and symptoms of what?
Arterial embolism
Massage for Arterial Embolism?
Any emboli or thrombi systemically contraindicate massage.
Clients taking anticoagulants may bruise easily.
Work with health care team for clients in recovery.
What is Hematoma?
Bleeding between sheets of fascia.
What is Eccymosis?
Smaller bruising in hematoma.
Discoloration on skin for superficial bruises. Pain heat, gelid mass in large muscles for hematomas are sign and symptoms of what?
Hematoma
Massage for Hematoma?
Locally avoid the area when acute and painful.
Later, work around edges within pain tolerance to stimulate reabsorption, more efficient healing.
What is Cancer in bone marrow, affecting WBC production?
Leukemia
That are the two types of stem cells that manufacture WBCs in bone marrow?
Myeloid
Lymphocytic
What is the genetic mutation in the production of WBCs in bone marrow?
Leukemia
What are the four main types of Leukemia?
Acute myslogenous leukemia (AML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
What is a rapidly progressive cancer that may be related to environmental factors.
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
What is a slow-growing cancer that involves WBC's interrupting immune system's function, but does not disable it entirely.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
What is a rapidly progressive, aggressive form of leukemia that involves DNA mutations in stem cells that produce bone marrow lymphocytes?
It affects young children more than other types.
Immune system function is disabled.
Acute lympocytic leukemia (ALL)
What is a slow-growing version of lymphocytic leukemia? mostly of B-cells; can be stable, best prognosis of all types of Leukemia.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Fatigue, low stamina, anemia (low RBCs)
Bruising, bleeding (low platelets)
Poor resistance to infection (low WBCs)
Others: Night sweats, splenomegaly, weight loss, etc. are signs and symtoms of what?
Leukimia
Massage for Leukemia?
Be cautious of side effects of chemotherapy.
Work to improve sleep, eating, tolerance for treatment.
Work with health care team.
What is Thrombophlebitis, Deep Vein Thrombosis?
Inflammation of a vein, due to clots.
Where are Deep Vein Thrombois usually located?
Calves, thighs, pelvis.
Physical trauma (kick, fall)
Varicose Veins (relatively low risk)
Local infection
Reduced circulation
Pregnancy
Blood disease
Surgery
High-estrogen birth control pills
Others: smoking, cardiovascular disease, paralysis are causes of what?
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Can show major signs of inflammation.
Can lead to signs on the skin from poor circulation.
DVT often silent.
Asymmetric temperature, texture in legs
Pitting edema; red flag!
are signs and symptoms of what?
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Inflammation is a major sign of what?
Dep Vein Thrombosis.
Poor circulation in the skin is a sign and symptom of what?
Deep Vein Thrombosis.
Pitting edema is a red flag for what?
Deep Vein Thrombosis.
What is contraindicated to massage because of risk of pulmonary embolism?
Deep Vein Thrombosis.
What is extremely difficult to determine if you can massage?
Deep Vein Thrombosis.
What is an Aneurysm?
Bulge in wall of major artery, aorta (or heart).
What makes arteries lose elasticity and may bulge with chronic high pressure?
Aneurysm
What are causes of Aneurysm?
Smoking
Congenital weakness
Inflammation
Trauma
What are signs and symptoms of Aneurysms?
May not be painful
May press on nearby tissue causing Headaches, Hoarseness, Low back Pain.
Aortic aneurysms usually occur with other cardiovascular diseases.
What may press on nearby tissue?
Aneurysm
Can you Massage a person with Aneurysm?
If a client is diagnosed with a stable aortic aneurysm, bodywork should be noncirculatory!
Can you massage survivors of aneurysm?
Survivors may be good candidates. Compare to activities of daily living.
Consult with health care team.
What is Atherosclerosis?
Subtype of ARTHERIOSCLEROSIS which is the "hardening of the arteries".
What causes damage to arteries from the accumulation and infiltration of plaques?
Atherosclerosis
What is Coronary artery disease? CAD
Artherosclerosis specifically of coronary artery.
What is Hypertension?
High blood pressure
What is systolic?
(of blood pressure) indicating the maximum arterial pressure occurring during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
What is diastolic?
(of blood pressure) indicating the arterial pressure during the interval between heartbeats.
What is the optimal systolic reading?
<120
What is the optimal diastolic reading?
<80
What is the "silent killer"?
Hypertension.
Shortness of breath after mild exercise; headache, swollen ankles, excessive sweating, anxiety is a sign and symptom of what?
Hypertension
Edema, Atherosclerosis, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, kidney disease, vision problems are a complication of what?
Hypertension.
Distended superficial veins with valve damage is what?
Varicose Veins
Where are Varicose Veins found?
Mostly in legs but also at exophagus, anus, scrotum.
What are causes of Varicose Veins?
Wear and tear, gravity.
Mechanical obstruction. Too-tight knee socks, brace, pregnancy.
Lumpy, blusich, off-track distension on legs that may be itchy or painful is a sign and symptom of what?
Varicose Veins
Are "Spider Veins" (telangiectasias) safe to massage?
Yes
Can you massage someone with Varicose Veins?
Local caution: damaged tissure close to surface. Use broad, flat hands (light efflerage)
What is damage to cardiac muscle from ischemia?
Heart Attack
What is a blocked coronary artery
Heart Attack
What is a MI, myocardial infarction
Heart Attack
What is it when a fragment of debris (clot or plaque) travels along coronary artery until it get stuck; ischemia kills off part of myocardium.
Heart Attack
Pressure, pain in chest is a sign and symptom of what?
Heart Attack
Spreading pain (left shoulder, jaw, arm) is a sign and symptom of what?
Heart Attack
Nausea, sweating, dizziness is a sign of what?
Heart Attack
Angina pectoris: "chest pain" can be a sign and symptom of what?
Heart Attack
Shortness of breath, anxiety, weakness, abdominal pain can be a sign and symptom of what?
Heart Attack.
Can you massage someone who's had a heart attack?
Depends on resilience, activities of daily living of the heart attack survivor.
Consult with health care team if necessary.
What is a progressive loss of cardiac function?
Heart Failure
Longterm work of pushing blood through resistant arteries leads to structural changes in myocardium such as?
It becomes bigger (not stronger)
Beats faster (not more efficiently)
Finally wears out, cannot keep up with needs.
Is Massage appropriate for Heart Failure?
Circulatory massage probably not appropriate.
Noncirculatory work is usually safe and welcome.
Work with a health care team.