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17 Cards in this Set

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what is absolutism?
state power that is held, a government. "an authoritarian government", their is no checks on their power.
what is divine right?
where they believed god to have placed them with power. how god chosen them to represent their country. you went against the king, you go against god.
what are commonalities against absoluit states?
-gaining control over nobility.
-establish modern bureaucrocy to run a centralized state.
-justified absolutism through divine right.
-creation of modern taxation/military sysetms.
-control over religous institutes.
mercantlist theory
state regulation of economy affairs, necessary for welfare of community.
state needed to be powerful, centralized bureaucrocy to encourage native industries, control production, set quality standards for industries.
louis foreign policy
-powerful, professional army
-at war for 25 years
-wanted to expand borders of france at expense of hapsbury empire
-france expanded in morth and east
-balance of power.
Third Estate -
A class in the Estates-General, which held one group vote. The Third Estate comprised the commoners of France, whether rich merchants or poor peasants. On June 17, 1789 the Third Estate broke from the Estates-General and declared itself the National Assembly.
Estates-General -.
Estates-General - A medieval representative institution,
The Estates- General consisted of -the clergy; -the nobility; and -the commoners, ranging from the poorest peasant to the wealthiest businessman. Voting was one vote per estate. By the eighteenth century, the Estates-General ceased to adequately reflect French society.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen -
a French document that brought together various liberal and progressive ideas from Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke and the Baron de Montesquieu
Geocentric -
The term geocentric describes the theory on the organization of the universe presented by Ptolemy of ancient Greece, which claims that the earth is the center of the solar system and that the sun and other planets orbit around it.
Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion -
They are:
1. The planets move around the sun not in circles, but ellipses.
2. Planets do not move uniformly, but in such a manner that a line drawn from a planet to the sun sweeps out an equal area of the ellipse of its orbit in equal time, even if the ellipse is not perfectly centered on the sun.
3. The squares of the periods of the planets' orbits are proportional to the cubes of their distances from the sun.
Francis Bacon -
Was known for His thoughts on logic and ethics in science and his ideas on the cooperation and interaction of the various fields of science, presented in his work Novum Organum.
Tycho Brahe -
was a great astronomical observer, and made accurate and long-term records of his observations, from which he derived his view of the structure of the solar system, in which the moon and sun orbited the Earth and the remaining planets orbited the sun.
Nicolas Copernicus -
he presented the heliocentric theory, which rested on the revolutionary notion that the Earth orbited the sun. Poland
Rene Descartes -
The inventor of deductive reasoning, and form in his work Geometry, which described how the motion of a point could be mapped graphically by comparing its position to planes of reference.
Galileo Galilei -
He invented the telescope and microscope. Galileo eventually combined his laws of physics with the observations he made with his telescope to defend the heliocentric Copernican view of the universe and refute the Aristotelian system in his 1630 masterwork, Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World. Upon its publication, he was censored by the Catholic Church and sentenced to house arrest in 1633, where he remained until his death in 1642.
Isaac Newton -
formulated an accurate comprehensive model of the workings of the universe based on the law of universal gravitation.
Newton explained his theories in the 1687 revolutionary work Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica, often called simply the Principia. This work also went along way toward developing calculus. Read the SparkNote on Newton.
Ptolemy -
Ptolemy's geocentric views on the structure of the universe dominated astronomy until the Scientific Revolution