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29 Cards in this Set

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Bureau of Indian Affairs
-Established within War Department(1824), worked close with Army.

-Significance: sent message - "Indians who resisted confinement on reservations woudlb e delt with by force."
-Rarely lived up to side of bargain.
-Supplies for Native Americans sold elsewhere.
Sitting Bull
(Iyotake, Tatanka)
Sioux medicine man.
-Opposed reservation life
-Inspired Battle of Rosebud & Little Bighorn
-Joined Ghost Dance Religion.
-Killed after ordered for arrest.
Battle of the Little Bighorn
-Army's decision to strike first
-Crazy Horse and native americans outnumber troops 3 to 1
-General George Armstrong Custor and battalion of over 200 men killed in less than an hour.
Sand Creek Massacre
-Conflict in Colorado Territory.
-Cheyennne leader Black Kettle, and group tired of fighting, making way to Fort Lyon to surrender.
-Camp along Sand Creek.
-700 troops under Colonel John Chivington attack camp.
-Kill 200, most women and children.
-Significance: Prompted raids by Arapahos and Cheyennes. Sioux engange long-standign war against U.S. Army.
General George Armstrong Custer
Lead batallion of 200 men, and killed at battle of Little Bighorn.
Wounded Knee Massacre, 1891
-South Dakota
-Militant tone added to Wovoka's Christian/Native American proclaimation that white settlers woudl vanish and the buffalo woudl return, the ghost dance. Believed Ghost Shirts could stop bullets.
-Sitting Bull killed during skirmish that broke out after order for his arrest for joining the religion.
-Tensions break at wounded knee creek between the indians led by Sioux leader Big Foot and Ghost Shirt Fighter, red Cloud. Rifle fired.
Chief Joseph
-Leader of Nez Percés who led his group away towards canada from Wallowa River Valley, fleding govenrment control.
-Significance: Leader of one of the main (700-800 members) Native American groups to actually surrender.
Helen Hunt Jackson
-Troubled by treatment of American indians.
-Wrote influencial book "a Century of Dishonor"
-attacked government for years of broken promises and corrupt dealings with Native Americans.
Sarah Winnemucca
-Reformer
-Paiute woman, publicized the plight of American Indians.
-Had served for years as an interpreter at U.S. forts. Briefly taught school on Paiute Reservation.
-Preached Cause before Presedent Rutherford B. Hayes, who granted request - not carried out by bureau's agents.
-"Life Among the Piutes"
Assimilation
-Cultural Absorbtion of one group into another.

-Laws forcing Indians to abandon traditional apperances.
-"Kill the indian and save the man"
-Cut off long hair.
-Outlawed Indian Religion
-System of Indian schools
-Speek english only
-Proper Clothing
-American names
Pacific Railway Act
-Gave land to railroad companies to develope a transcontinental railroad linking East and West Coasts.

-Significance: One of the three land acts. Encouraged western expansion
Homstead Act
Granted a 160-acre homestead, or farm, to any american citizen or prospective citizen willing to live in the Great Plains and cultivate the land for five years.

-One of 3 land acts, encouraged western expansion.
Morrill Act
Provided land grants to all states to help finance agricultural colleges, which would train young farmers and thus help develope the west.
Exodusters
Black Americans/Freedmen looking for jobs or gold/silver opportunities.
-Trying to get away from Jim Crow Laws
-Racism
-Lack of economic mobility

-one of the main groups settling in west.
Texas longhorn
Important cattle usefull for horns and immune to Texas fever.

Significant: Main type of cattle demand existed for.
Open Range
-Free grazing land.
-Gov. provided public land to be used in this way.

-Significance: made cattle ranching profitable
Joseph Glidden
Pattened barbed wire, responsible for open-range ranching's decline.
Barbed Wire
Invented by Jospeh Glidden as a cheap method of fencing

-Limited open grazing and the amount of open land available.
Klondike Gold Rush
-Prospectors discover gold in Klondike district of Canada's Yukon Territory, border with Alaska.
-Yukon miners extract gold deposits worth more than a million dollars.

-Significance: 100,000 people traveled through alaska to seek fortunes in the Klondike. Attracted settlers who established fish canneries, lumber companies, and coal and copper mining enterprises.
Alaska Purchase
Purchase of Alaska from the russians who needed money and feared a territorial dispute.
-$7,200,000
-Considered worthless
-Started Klondike Gold Rush
William Seward
U.S. Secretary of State
0Responsible for the Alaska Purchase - "Sewards Folly"
Why did the U.S. government adopt the reservation policy?
-Get native Americans out of Great Plains.
-Promote positive relationsihps.
Dawes Act
-Gave 160 acres of free land to Native American Families.
-They would be private land owners instead of having a nomadic lifestyle.
-Failed.
4 Groups moving west and why
Native Americans - pushed out by Whites and US Government - looking for buffalo

Immigrants - pushed out by potatoe Famine and Catholic Discrimination - Pulled out by lack of eastern economic promises, prospect of jobs with railroads
Exodusters - racism and lack of economic mobility - gold/silver and jobs
White Easterners - economic recession - gold/silver/jobs
Why Cattle demand increased
Population increased: immigrants and improvements in the medical technology.
Transportation of cattle to eastern and western cities
Long Drives: Cattle herded (as many as 3000) by cowboys. Meant to reach railroads
-Taken to missouri, but later kansas because of lack of immunity to texas fever in missouri.

Railhead: Town located along railroad. Brokers bought cattle and shipped them east.
Why cattle boom ended after 20 years
Overgrazing
-damaged grasslands
-too many cattle (supply and demand)

Barbed Wire invention
-Cattle couldnt graze wtih territory marked off

Bad Weather
-Severe winter and drought
Description of life in mining communities
-Wide range of Backgrounds
-Simple Democracy/law and order
-Camps mostly males, and few women
-Occasionally violence from competition
-Conflict between ethnic groups
-Eventually families move into camps, become permanent communities
Why mining turned into a big business enterprise
Most easily accessible mineral deposits were eventually worked out. Miners required expensive methods of exposing minerals underneath.