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57 Cards in this Set

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Although the most impressive town in early Greek civilization is at ____, a site known for the Lion’s Gate, its sculpted entryway, its huge “Cyclopean” walls, and its royal tombs with beehive shaped interiors, other early Greek towns included Athens, Tiryns, and Pylos.
Mycenae
Many Mycenaens who were overrun by Dorian Greeks fled to Anatolia and established Greek culture in an area called ___.
Iona
During the transition in which the Mycenaens fled to Anatolia after being overrun by Dorian Greeks, their art of writing and related administrative skills were lost and thus, the cultural achievements of these Greeks declined leading to a historical era from 1100 to 800 B.C.E. known as the ___ Age of ancient Greece.
Dark
Between 800 and 750 B.C.E., a Greek cultural revival began and the ___ (city-state) emerged as the central unit of economic, social, and political structure and organization; these city-states were small, self-governing units.
polis
The ___ Sea became an important geographical core of Greek civilization in that it stood between the Balkan Peninsula and Anatolia; sea travel was much more efficient than land travel due to the terrain of the land surrounding this early Greek civilization.
Aegean
As the population and trade both increased and farming declined in the ____ Greek period, a large spread developed between the rich and the poor leading to threats of anarchy between classes.
Archaic
As Greek military techniques changed from small, wealthy cavalry units to large infantry groups, soldiers who would buy spears and armor became known as hoplites who were organized into large units able known as ____ that were able to resist cavalry charges.
Phalanxes
When other methods to resolve social conflicts failed, the polis would use a ___, an individual given complete power in order to restore the polis, to mediate.
Tyrant
After fighting with and enslaving neighboring Messenia, a Greek city-state known as ____ came to control the Peloponnesus c. 620 B.C.E.
Sparta
The Lycurgan code of which Greek city-state dictated that all males ages 7 to 30 live in military barracks and undergo military training?
Sparta
Sparta lead a system of alliances known as the ___ League that was composed of other city-states and served to guard Sparta from outside revolts and threats.
Sparta lead a system of alliances known as the ___ League that was composed of other city-states and served to guard Sparta from outside revolts and threats.
Spartan government included which of the following characteristics? (there may be more than one right answer)
An elected board that was active in foreign policy and monitored the kings’ and generals’ exercise of military authority
Assembly of all male citizens over age 30
Council of Elders
two kings with limited authority
____ was the only Mycenaean Greek city state to survive when the Dorian Greeks invaded the Balkan Peninsula.
Athens
Which of the following was not a characteristic of the government in Athens at the end of the Dark Ages?
one king, “rex,”who had final authority over the Areopagus council of the Athenian polis (city-state)
In order to deal with the socio-economic crisis occurring in Athens during the seventh century B.C.E., a certain man known as _____ was given a tyrant-like status; this leader was faced with revolutionary-type violence and responded with a severe law code with severe punishments.
Draco
The socio-economic turmoil facing Athens in the seventh century B.C.E. included which of the following: (may include mutiple answers)
Oppressed farmers began to threaten violence and demand that debts be cancelled and land returned to its owners
farmers unable to repay high interest debts were forced into slavery or faced with loss of their land
small farmers struggling to produce crops often resorted to borrowing from the wealthy nobles
Like Draco, ___ (594 B.C.E.) was elected as archon and given a great deal of power to deal with the agrarian crisis facing Athens.
Solon
While the Athenian Draco is known for his strict “Draconian” law codes, Solon is known for the _____ which he brought to Athens; Solon structured Athenian government into a Council of 400 members (boule), a general Assembly (ekklesia), and public courts of law.
Constitution
In 546 B.C.E., a benevolent dictator named ____ gained control of Athens and won support of the people through public works funding, new religious celebrations, and expansion of the agora, the marketplace for the Council of 400.
Peisistratus
The Nobleman ____ emerged into power in Athens during a time of revolutionary unrest and worked to reform the structure of society and replacing the aristocratic brotherhoods (phratries) who ruled the Council with the demes (townships of the people), changed the four tribes of Athens, which all had ties to aristocracy, to ten tribes made up of the demes, and altered the size and structure of the Council
Cleisthenes
A policy of ____, exiling an individual for ten years, was used by the Athenians to make sure that no one politician gained too much power.
ostracism
Cyrus the Great expanded his Persian empire into Greece in 546 B.C.E. when he gained control of a region in Asia minor known as ______.
Anatolia
In 499 B.C.E., the Ionian Greeks in Anatolia, who had been invaded by the Persians in 546 B.C.E., rebelled against Persian control and were aided by the city-state ___ on the Greek mainland.
Athens
Through a series of battles at land and at sea, the Athenians were able to defeat the Persians with the assistance of the city-state of _____.
Sparta
The word “____” came from a battle in 490 B.C.E. in Attica in which greatly outnumbered Athenians defeated the Persian army under emperor Darius I and afterward, a messenger ran 26 miles to report this remarkable victory.
marathon
The Greeks prevented further westward expansion of the Persian empire when they defeated the army of King Xerxes at the battle of ___ in 480 B.C.E.
Salamis
In order to protect themselves and neighboring city-states from future attacks from the Persians, the Athenians formed the ___ League (478 B.C.E.), a naval alliance made up of over a hundred poleis (city-states) all located along the Aegean Sea shores.
Delian
After the polis (city-state) of ____ decided to leave the Delian League in 465 B.C.E., Athens invaded this city-state and overthrew its government as an example to others who may in the future try to leave the league.
Thasos
The Delian League led to the formation of the Athenian Empire as Athens, led by the general _____ conquered city-states who attempted to secede from the league; the Delian League treasury was moved from Delos to Athens in 454 B.C.E.
Pericles
In the fifth century B.C.E., Greek ruler Pericles ordered the construction of the ___, a temple to the goddess Athena, on the hill known as the Acropolis.
Parthenon
Which of the following actions did not occur under Athenian ruler Pericles?
led the Athenians through the entire Peloponnesian Wars
Athens was made into a complete democracy under the ruler Pericles and entered into a time of prosperity known as the ___ Age of Athens.
Golden
The ________ Wars (431-404 B.C.E.) are generally thought of as an attempt of Sparta, whose military power was land-based, to prevent rival Athens, whose military power was sea-based, from taking over all of Greece.
Peloponnesian
Pericles’ strategy against the Spartan invasion of Attica, the peninsula on which Athens was located, in 431 B.C.E. early in the Peloponnesian Wars involved which of the following? (there may be more than one correct answer)
exhaustion of the Spartans
retreat of Athenians behind city walls
avoidance of open battle with the Spartans
The Athenians were defeated in 413 B.C.E. after Alcibiades, Pericles’ nephew, led them in a failed invasion of Spartan allies at the city of ____ in Sicily.
Syracuse
Following defeat by the Spartans in the Peloponnesian Wars, a Spartan oligarchy known as the “___ Tyrants” took control of Athens for several years
Thirty
Greek culture established in the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.E. became known as “___” as later generations used it as a standard by which they could measure their own accomplishments; Greek culture influenced Roman literature, art, and language, Medieval church theology, the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.
classical
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the religion of the ancient Greeks?
an extensive theology that addressed questions relating to life and death
After the formerly illiterate Greeks acquired literacy through trading contacts with a group known as the ____, they were able to write down and record early poetry, which has been passed down through the generations as oral traditions
Phoenicians
__, a blind poet who lived between 850 and 700 B.C.E., has been attributed with writing the great Greek epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Homer
Homer’s epic poem the ___ describes the siege of Troy by the Mycenaeans.
Iliad
Homer’s epic poem the ____ tells of Odysseus, Mycenaean king of Ithaca and hero of the Trojan War, and his journey back to Ithaca.
Odyssey
Greek poet ___ (c. 700 B.C.E.) wrote the Theogony, a work describing the birth of the gods, and Works and Days, which tells about the life of a farmer.
Hesoid
Which seventh century B.C.E. Greek poet devised the new poetic form of writing lyrics, short poems with themes that describe a certain human experience?
Archilochus
The Greek poet ___ (518-438 B.C.E.) is known for his poetic odes of victory for purposes of athletic contests.
Pindar
Greek ____ was generally used to honor the gods, originally involved a chorus (group of singers) alternating verse with a single leader, and grew to include dialogue between actors.
drama
____ is one of the earliest forms of Greek drama. In the sixth century B.C., Athenians actors Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides engaged in competitions for the best performers in this type of drama.
tragedy
The plays of Aeschylus (c. 525-456 B.C.E.), which have moral and religious themes, focus on ___, exaggerated pride and self-confidence, that leads to individuals bringing nemesis, divine punishment, upon themselves.
hubris
____ (496-406 B.C.E.) was an ancient Greek tragedian who wrote several plays including Oedipus and Antigone which each address moral and religious issues; this playwright wrote from the perspective that humans were born into a world that lacks knowledge and is full of suffering.
Sophocles
The Greek tragedies of playwright _____ (c.480-406 B.C.E.) lack the moral and religious concerns of other tragedians, but rather, restructured the traditional Athenian tragedy and focused on the inner lives and motives of his characters.
Euripides
The most well known Greek writer of comedies was ____ (c. 450-385 B.C.E.), a playwright who used the medium of a comedy to make fun of other Athenians.
Aristophanes
Ionian Greek ___ (c. 484-425 B.C.E.), the “Father of History,” wrote an account of the conflicts between the ancient Greeks and the Persians.
Herodotus
Greek historian ____ (c. 460-400 B.C.E.), recounts the Peloponnesian Wars in an impartial manner in which he interviews contenders on either side.
Thucydides
___ of Miletus (c. 600 B.C.E.), who believed that water was the universal substance behind all things, was the earliest known Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher.
Thales
Early Greek philosopher _____ (c. 400 B.C.E.) theorized that physical objects were composed of atoms (the Greek word atoma meant “indivisible”).
Democritus
Greek philosopher ________ (c. 530 B.C.E.) theorized that mathematical relationships could be used to describe all of reality; this philosopher is also believed to have coined the term “philosopher,” stating that he was a “lover of wisdom” and the moral life.
Pythagoras
Ancient Greek philosopher ____ (c. 500 B.C.E.) was the first individual in the Western world to create a forceful philosophical system and was preoccupied with the universality of change.
Heraclitus