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288 Cards in this Set

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What three major religions did people associate themselves with in the 1600s Europe?
Protestant, Calvinst, Catholic
Where was most of the 30-year-war located?
Germany
In the 1600s _____ and Austria had close ties.
Spain
In the 1600s, the most bloody wars were fought on __________ soil.
German
During the 30 year war, some countries lost as many as ____ % of their population.
50%
During __________ 1/3 of southern Germany died out
30 year war
Who emerged as major country after 30 year war?
France
What is the cause of the decentralization of the Holy Empire?
tiny states start to dominate their own religion
From _____ to ____ peasants, lower class, and revolts occured in Austria and Hungary
1590-1640
Portugal became part of spain in ____.
1580
When population is stable, the _________ increased.
witch hunts
What kind of person was usually constituted as a witch?
poor widowed woman who sometimes lost children in the war, collected hers and sold them
WHo were weary of the poot in the 1600s?
property owners
The poor were demonized as "_______".
agents of the devil
There was a highpoint in _____ during the thirty years war.
art/literature
When things are bad _________, they can be great socially and artistically.
politically
what are politiques?
neutral Catholics and Calvinists
Issac Newton discovered the force of gravity _____ years after Galileo.
100
Who was William Harvey?
helped define human body as one circulatory system, before him people thought of blood systems having two blood systems: (1) bright red blood, (2) darker color that ran through digestive system
Who was Rene Decartes?
Responsible for new system of thought, acceptance of doubt, ppushed away things he knew in school.

seperated mind from matter

mind can't be doubted, body and physical world can.

"i think therefore i am."
What famous philosopher wrote compulsive lists?
Aristole, did so because he was trying to create categories of the universe
Before the Scientific Revolution, most believed that ________ had the last world on everything.
Aristole
Students began to study business and geometry more during the _______.
Scientific Revolution
The scientists of the Scientific revolution aren't _____.
atheists
When and where was Galileo born?
Pisa, Italy, 1564
Galileo is the eldest of _______ kids.
eight
What profession did Galileo's parents want him to have?
a medical doctor
Galileo was influenced a lot by the mathamatics of _______.
Da Vinci
Galileo argued for a ________ view of the universe
heliocentric
Who was the first to assume that some force had to affect falling of objects?
Galileo
What did Galileo do with his daughters and sons?
He gave a dowry to his son, and put the women in convents
Why did Galileo go to the Inquisition?
Because they wanted to try him for saying that the sun was the center of universe
Why did Galileo get rid of his daughters?
He needed to focus on his own scientific need.
Why did Jesuit priests get mad at Galileo?
because he demystified ideas of God.
What did Galileo do after the Inquistion?
He recanted his ideas in order to please the Inquisition.
Why was Galileo put in prison?
For preaching the ideas that the universe was heliocentric.
What is absolutism?
a form of God in which soverign power r ultimate authority rested in the hands of a monarch who claimed to rule by divine and was responsible to God.
Who was Louis XIV?
ostentacious kind, enormous wealth, silk stockings, decor, reaffirms nothing that he is special important figure in 17th century.
At the beginning of Louis XIV reign, France is on the verge of ________.
collapse
What does Louis XIV do in order to win favor of noble class?
Gives them a tax cut.
How old was Louis XIV when he was given the crown?
four years old
How old was Louis XIV when he was crowned?
23 years old
What did Louis XIV say on his first day of cornation?
"I have the say. This is my government."
Why didn't Louis XIV like Paris?
He felt that the city dwarfed him, felt like a small fish in a big pond, this was the reason he built palace in Versaillas.
What was a personal reason Louis XIV moved to Versailles?
He had a mistress who lived there.
Who did Louis XIV invite to his Palace?
the aristocracy, they all had their own little rooms to stay in
Louis XIV was known to hold ______.
grudges
Who controls Louis XIV's fortunes?
Colbert
During the 1600s, Prussia was a ______ kingdom.
absolutist.
After Queen Elizabeth of England's death in 1605 who takes over her crown?
her cousin, King James
King James, of England, did not respect the ______.
Magna Carta, parliament
King James wanted to seperate ___.
Church and State
After King James of England's rule ended in 1605, ______ took over.
King Charles
King Charles ________ the puritans.
harrassed
Why did Puritans move to England?
In hopes of making a Puritan society
During the _____ war, 1642-1648, ________________ lead the Puritan army who resented the king.
civil

oliver cromwell
After Oliver Cromwell wins the Puritan Civil War, he ______.
arrests the king for being a traitor
After War, Cromwell becomes a ______.
dictator
When Cromwell dies, public decides they want a ________.
monarchy
Who is invited to become King of England after Cromwell's death?
King James II
______________________ signed the English Parliament's "Bill of Rights".
King William and Queen Mary
"Letter to the Grand Dutchess"
Galileo

importance: solicit importance, seperation of science and religion, logically defend what people were saying about his theories
How would Thomas Hobbes feel about the Bill of Rights?
Bad, he had no faith in man's individual service
What French king was obbessed with Apollo?
Louis XIV
When and what was the Glorious Revolution?
1688-England had convoluted worked alongside parliament
Thomas Hobbes lived __________ the Glorious revolution
before
People in Hobbes day _______ absolutism
disliked
Hobbes believed that if we were left unchecked we would ___________.
lie, cheat and steal
Hobbes believed human nature was _____ because of the we collectively should agree to have a _________ for we know we need to be ____________.
violent
leader
watched
Why did so many people put faith into a monarchy?
Because people believed the kings were chosen by God.
Hobbes favored ___________.
absolutism
John Locke did his writings primarily after ___________.
the Glorious Revolution
Locke believed we were inherently __________. Being this, we understand that we need a __________, in order to be rules by a _____________.
good natured people

central government

strong figure
Under the new parliament, if the king did not respect our wishes, we had the right to _________.
rise up against king
________ was influenced by John Locke.
Thomas Jefferson.
______________________ signed the English Parliament's "Bill of Rights".
King William and Queen Mary
"Letter to the Grand Dutchess"
Galileo

importance: solicit importance, seperation of science and religion, logically defend what people were saying about his theories
______________________ signed the English Parliament's "Bill of Rights".
King William and Queen Mary
______________________ signed the English Parliament's "Bill of Rights".
King William and Queen Mary
How would Thomas Hobbes feel about the Bill of Rights?
Bad, he had no faith in man's individual service
"Letter to the Grand Dutchess"
Galileo

importance: solicit importance, seperation of science and religion, logically defend what people were saying about his theories
"Letter to the Grand Dutchess"
Galileo

importance: solicit importance, seperation of science and religion, logically defend what people were saying about his theories
How would Thomas Hobbes feel about the Bill of Rights?
Bad, he had no faith in man's individual service
What French king was obbessed with Apollo?
Louis XIV
How would Thomas Hobbes feel about the Bill of Rights?
Bad, he had no faith in man's individual service
When and what was the Glorious Revolution?
1688-England had convoluted worked alongside parliament
What French king was obbessed with Apollo?
Louis XIV
What French king was obbessed with Apollo?
Louis XIV
Thomas Hobbes lived __________ the Glorious revolution
before
When and what was the Glorious Revolution?
1688-England had convoluted worked alongside parliament
When and what was the Glorious Revolution?
1688-England had convoluted worked alongside parliament
People in Hobbes day _______ absolutism
disliked
Thomas Hobbes lived __________ the Glorious revolution
before
Thomas Hobbes lived __________ the Glorious revolution
before
Hobbes believed that if we were left unchecked we would ___________.
lie, cheat and steal
People in Hobbes day _______ absolutism
disliked
Hobbes believed human nature was _____ because of the we collectively should agree to have a _________ for we know we need to be ____________.
violent
leader
watched
People in Hobbes day _______ absolutism
disliked
Hobbes believed that if we were left unchecked we would ___________.
lie, cheat and steal
Hobbes believed human nature was _____ because of the we collectively should agree to have a _________ for we know we need to be ____________.
violent
leader
watched
Why did so many people put faith into a monarchy?
Because people believed the kings were chosen by God.
Hobbes believed that if we were left unchecked we would ___________.
lie, cheat and steal
Hobbes believed human nature was _____ because of the we collectively should agree to have a _________ for we know we need to be ____________.
violent
leader
watched
Hobbes favored ___________.
absolutism
Why did so many people put faith into a monarchy?
Because people believed the kings were chosen by God.
John Locke did his writings primarily after ___________.
the Glorious Revolution
Why did so many people put faith into a monarchy?
Because people believed the kings were chosen by God.
Hobbes favored ___________.
absolutism
Locke believed we were inherently __________. Being this, we understand that we need a __________, in order to be rules by a _____________.
good natured people

central government

strong figure
John Locke did his writings primarily after ___________.
the Glorious Revolution
Hobbes favored ___________.
absolutism
Under the new parliament, if the king did not respect our wishes, we had the right to _________.
rise up against king
John Locke did his writings primarily after ___________.
the Glorious Revolution
Locke believed we were inherently __________. Being this, we understand that we need a __________, in order to be rules by a _____________.
good natured people

central government

strong figure
Under the new parliament, if the king did not respect our wishes, we had the right to _________.
rise up against king
Locke believed we were inherently __________. Being this, we understand that we need a __________, in order to be rules by a _____________.
good natured people

central government

strong figure
________ was influenced by John Locke.
Thomas Jefferson.
________ was influenced by John Locke.
Thomas Jefferson.
Under the new parliament, if the king did not respect our wishes, we had the right to _________.
rise up against king
________ was influenced by John Locke.
Thomas Jefferson.
What is the Antlantic System?
It refers to the cultural/economical/social relasionship between Africa, Americas, and Europe
What does the study of the Antlantic System include?
colonization, interacton fo fodd that alter European waya
What is the most important component of the Antlantic System?
slavery
When did the Indians become disrupted by the Europeans?
1600s
What is the Antlantic System?
It refers to the cultural/economical/social relasionship between Africa, Americas, and Europe
What does the study of the Antlantic System include?
colonization, interacton fo fodd that alter European waya
What mostly desimated the Indian population?
disease
Before the arrival of Columbus, how many Amerindians were there?
75 million (roughly 20% of world's population)
What is the most important component of the Antlantic System?
slavery
When did the Indians become disrupted by the Europeans?
1600s
After Europeans came to the AMericas, how many ameridians were left?
one million were left out of 25 million that once existed
Where does the words slaves come from?
the word "slavs"
What mostly desimated the Indian population?
disease
Before the arrival of Columbus, how many Amerindians were there?
75 million (roughly 20% of world's population)
what are "slavs"?
slavs were under muslim control and sold into the Christain slave trade
After Europeans came to the AMericas, how many ameridians were left?
one million were left out of 25 million that once existed
when did they begin to use African slaves along the coast?
15th and 16th century
Where does the words slaves come from?
the word "slavs"
what are "slavs"?
slavs were under muslim control and sold into the Christain slave trade
Who made deals with powerful African tribes for prisoners of war?
African slaves
when did they begin to use African slaves along the coast?
15th and 16th century
Between 1500-1800 how many Africans were yanked out of Africa?
9-12 million
What is the Antlantic System?
It refers to the cultural/economical/social relasionship between Africa, Americas, and Europe
Who made deals with powerful African tribes for prisoners of war?
African slaves
By 1700, how many Africans were moved every year?
9-12 million
What does the study of the Antlantic System include?
colonization, interacton fo fodd that alter European waya
Between 1500-1800 how many Africans were yanked out of Africa?
9-12 million
How many African slaves could be packed per boat?
300-450 per boat
What is the most important component of the Antlantic System?
slavery
By 1700, how many Africans were moved every year?
9-12 million
Why would slaves on boats be beaten for talking to one another?
Because it proved that they were planning a revolt (which they or may not have been doing).
When did the Indians become disrupted by the Europeans?
1600s
How many African slaves could be packed per boat?
300-450 per boat
Why would slaves on boats be beaten for talking to one another?
Because it proved that they were planning a revolt (which they or may not have been doing).
What mostly desimated the Indian population?
disease
Before the arrival of Columbus, how many Amerindians were there?
75 million (roughly 20% of world's population)
After Europeans came to the AMericas, how many ameridians were left?
one million were left out of 25 million that once existed
Where does the words slaves come from?
the word "slavs"
what are "slavs"?
slavs were under muslim control and sold into the Christain slave trade
when did they begin to use African slaves along the coast?
15th and 16th century
Who made deals with powerful African tribes for prisoners of war?
African slaves
Between 1500-1800 how many Africans were yanked out of Africa?
9-12 million
By 1700, how many Africans were moved every year?
9-12 million
How many African slaves could be packed per boat?
300-450 per boat
Why would slaves on boats be beaten for talking to one another?
Because it proved that they were planning a revolt (which they or may not have been doing).
Women were subject to _____ on the slave ships.
rape
How much did they feed slaves?
the minimum amount to keep them alive
Who did slaves take the name of?
the slaveholder, this also stirpped them of identity
_________ owners gave their slaves Sunday off.
Christain
most slaves slept on _______, if was rare to sleep on _______.
wood floors

straw mats
Great Britan imported more _____ from American then any other combined in America.
sugar
_____ became essential to people's diet, eventually replaced what and became the staple of potatoes.
Potatoe
What animals came to the Americas from the old world
Pigs, sheep, horses, cattle, and honeybee
Where did Europe learn how to make tabbacco?
from Ameridians
What became the most popular crops during 17th century?
coffee, tabbacco, sugar
What kind of spaces are created with the abundance of coffee?
European elite start to gather in certain spaces in order to talk about things
What is merchantilism?
the document that nations of states need to intervene in order to increase wealth of nations
How would the government get involved in merchantilism?
i you pit on slaes tax from goods people are moving to mother country, that gives king money to invest in domestic economy.
Who is Jean Baptist Colbert?
if France had federal reserve, Colbert would be in chagre of it.
What is the system of tariffs?
tax or barrier textile goods from Great Britina in order to keep its own French product more desireable
With these tariffs, these goods become _________.
monopolies
what are monopolies?
another form merchantilism
The population of Europe had been growin steadily since _________/
right after the Black Plague, 1450s-1490s
What age did babies usually die before?
age 1
there was 1:6 change that children between the ages of 1450-1490 to make it to age
ten
What was the oldest age to live to?
40-45
During the 18th centuries cities with 50,000 people almost _________.
doubled
Population nearly triples within cities over _____.
100 year
What were the reason of the population growht during the 18th century??
growing agriculture, secure wheat/cotton transportation, land owners were intestest in investing in ships
By the 1700s, ____ and _____ are no longer luxury goods.
sugar and coffee
By the 1700s, ______ is no longer just for the elite but also the lower classes.
smoking
what opened in 1652?
London based coffee shop for elite men, much like starbucks, there are coffeeshops in Paris, Berlin, and Spain
DUring the 1700s, people who drink coffee are often involved in _____________.
subversive conversations
Why are manners so important?
show distictivesness, culutes, ways we show our self-discipline, manners and distracting, shows self restraint and discipline
______ were the main transmittors of manners. It was them waho tuught the proper function of society.
women
What were the manners of men in the 17th century?
gloves for men, powdered wigs, silk stockings, to become more girly and delicate is what it was all about
A common belief during the time was that poor people were poor because they were morally indeficant.

which means?
god doesn't like you, god made you pooe
What were the importance of salons?
to discuss current events, usually a formal invitation
what was the age of reason?
an era in which rationalism prevailed, espeically the period of the enlightment of France, Egnladn and US. a longer period including the 18th century in which people began to discovere objective truth through aestheticss, government and logic
What does this phrase mean, and who said it:

"everything is for the best in this best of all possible worlds"
Gottfriied Wilheln Von Leibniz

these philosophers believed that God created a perfect world and therefore all bad things are perfect and for the best
Voltair sets his story in Europe because....
during this time many people did not beleive that things could happen for no reason whatsoever. He was upset by this.
Voltair publishes his book under the pen name ....
"Monsieur le doctur Ralphe" literally Mister Doctor Raplh. This symbolizes how Voltaire needed to protect hiimself from his truths in a age where truth was pretending to be found.
Coffee ships became importaant to talk about .....
various forms of literature
________ society heightens between people who have land and people who don't have anything.
Coffeeshop/salon society
What was the Enlightenment?
believed humans could apply whose proponents believed they could reasonably solve human problems
Lock believed we were .....
inherently good and given good training, western civilization is going to be much better
What is the tabula rasa?
a blank slate, John Locke believd we were born with this blackness and anything evoked onto us is how we become. (We are not born sinners, or good people, ect.)
Who was Voltaire influenced by?
Peter Bale
Who wrote "Elements of Philosophy of Newton"?
Voltaire
Who believes that we should question assumptions bewteen men and women?
Mary Estell
Englightenment reaches its peak in the middle of the _______, with a group of men called _______.
18th century, philosophes
who are philosophes?
guys in coffeeshops and salons, they are professors, doctos, lawyers, businesssmen, they are people who make up philosophes
What are Free Masons?
A secret society in which philosophes could come together, inside of American free temple, huge, stadium soceity, free mason societyis not as ornate as masonic temples, a space
What is a Free Mason?
A space wehere guys could come together and debtate the latest scientific find wriitngs
WHat did mattered with the Free Mason temples?
class, religious difference
Who were some important figures of England that were free masons?
Thomas Jefferson

Benjermin Franklin
Why was the Free Mason society secret?
has to do with who they want to keep out. Increasing backlash against women. If you can create spaces where things happen. Free mason secrecy is good way of keeping asolutists from breaking down whaT THEY CREATED
Voltaire was a product of _______ education
Jesuit
Voltaire says that is stupid for Christains to go to war with each other because they beleive
the same thing
Voltaire was a diest. true or false
true
what is deism?
refers to understanding of god that enters seating in wrold. Diests are skeptical of Gods that are proactive.
in 1755 there was an erathquake in ______
Lisbon
______ Catholic believed God was punishing them.
Portuwguese
Diests didn't believe God punished people, God wants us to use ....
reason to make sense of our world and make it better
What kind of idea is this:

God created us and world, and we and nature are responsible for what happens on our planet.
Diest
Who helped write the encyclopedia?
Diderot
who invented marchantilism, regulation of natural, and intervention?
adam smith
Who beleved we needed to be forced to be free?
Rosseu
How does Rosseu believe that liberty is achieved?
by pursing what's good in everyone
What book by Rosseu relfects his beliefs that education should encourage rather than push back natural inclination?
"Emile" or "Education"
Rossu didn't practice what he preached, what did he do with all of his children?
He put them in orphanages, convents,
What were Rosseu's ideas about women?
men supposed to ones fighting against each other, sexual difference becames political differences, women are emotional soft, and playful and therfore should not be civic leaders
Who wrote the Vindication of the Rights of Woman?
Mary Wollstonecraft
What did the Rights of Woman proclaim?
that if we should believe individuals need to be free, we need to have women be free
"Critique of Pure reason" by Immanuel Kant means what?
how is it that you come to a reason?

do we have free will?

is there a god?
What does Immanuel Kant say?
do good because it's your duty a society built on reason where people do good for sake of doing good is the best
"what can I take from them?" who says you shouldn't think this way when approaching people?
immanuel aknt
Many ________ were hostile toward the church
philosphes
_______ publicly burned Voltair's work
Voltaires
what are pogroms?
spontaneous riots, explosions of volent pracarious situations
Jews were victims of sometimes ________.
pogroms
what are sephardic jews?
hes that refer t Spanish jews, even muslim controlled pensula
DUring this time _____ of people came to easter services
90-95%
What did Wesley believe?
That churches were becoming bureacherized institutions, that churches didn't experience faith
Wesley believed gifts of God came from preaching to people with ________.
emotion
Who wrote the Edich of Nantes?
Henry IV, freed protestants from minority
What year happened the Trial of Suzzanne Guadry, what's important about it?
a record of a witch trail
Who wrote "Memoirs"?
Louis de Rouvroy, Duke of Saint-Simon
Who wrote the English Bill of Rights?
The British Parliament
Who wrote the Interesting Narrative o Life?
Olaudah Equiano
Who wrote "Persian Letters: Letter 37"?
Montewquieu
Who wrote "Reflections upon Marriage"?
Mary Astell
Who wrote The Salon of Madame Geoffrin?
Marie-herese Geoffrin and M. d'Alembert
Who wrote "Journal of my life"?
Jacques-Louis Menetra
Who wrote "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations"?
Adam Smith
Who wrote "Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington"?
Thomas Jefferson
Who wrote "What is the third estate?"
Abbe Sieyes
Who wrote "The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen"?
National Assembly
What are Enlightemen Despots, and who are some examples?
kings or queens who are influenced by the enlightenment, and ar intellectual

Katerine the Great

Fredrich the II

both interested in education, religious tolerance
What was the War of Austrian Succession?
Charles 6th couldn produce a male heir to become emporer, he leaves the crown to Maria Teressa, most accepted as queen of holy roman empire
London parliament not only set laws in the United Kingdom, but in ______ and ____ colonies as well.
northern canada

american
Who was Thomas Jefferson?
The principle writer of the declaration of independence
who did Thomas Jefferson get his ideas from?
John Locke
After the seven years war who was the major figure of Europ?
Britan
Thomas Jefferson uses _____ and _____, (two European writers) to explain whyy America should seperate from England
Rosseu and Locke
what were the first two phases of the french relolution?
radical, and liberal
For many generations people expressed _______ to the king via petition and collection to tribute, suppose to make it to king's desk.
grivacnes
Lots of frenchmen became ________ with little could be done to change plight, even with letter to king.
disillusioned
France adopted ))))))) when they paud for arms for US to fight great britan
"enemy as my best friend"
What are the estates general?
the three representative bodies
what is the first estate?
the clergy, not the local priest, but Bishop
What is the 2nd estate?
all the nobility, land owners, have jurisdictions over cities, constitue 2-3% of ntion
what is the 3rd estate?
97% of people of France represented by 3rd estate
The 3rd estate rose up and became the...
national assembly
the ___ had no power,
third estate
In SUmmer of 1789, a secrret meeting was held at Versailles by ))))
the 3rd estate
what was reigh of terror?
populace arrested, tried and killed after months
Ropes Pierre who stated the reigh of terror is killed how?
by the reign of terror itself.
30 Years’ War?
The Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, and involved most of the major European continental powers.
Peace of Westphalia?
The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties (the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück) signed in October and May 1648 which ended both the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War.
Fronde?
Fronde (1648–1653) was a civil war in France, followed by the Franco-Spanish War (1653). The word fronde means sling, with which the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin were broken with stones by Paris mobs.
Glorious Revolution?
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
laissez-faire?
Laissez-faire (IPA: [lɛse fɛr]) or laisser-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez aller, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning "let do, let go, let pass." From the French diction first used by the eighteenth century physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it became used as a synonym for strict free market economics during the early and mid-19th century.
Mary Wollstonecraft ?
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher, and early feminist.
Methodism?
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. It originated in 18th century Britain, and through vigorous missionary activity, spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, and beyond.
Romanticism?
Romanticism is an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe.
Committee of Public Safety?
The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793 - 1794) of the French Revolution.
Robespierre?
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (IPA: [maksimiljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃swa maʁi izidɔʁ də ʁɔbəspjɛʁ]) (6 May 1758–28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. His supporters knew him as "the Incorruptible" because of his austere moral devotion to revolutionary political change.