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116 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define ancien Regime and why it is important.
Ancien regime is pre-revolution-it is important because is it what conservatives followed. They believed in the old ways, to have restoration of order, an ordered society, which included the Bourbon dynasty and absolutism.
Who are conservatives?
they believe in ancien regime. old way, pre-revolution-wanted to return to ordered society, made up by old nobility and upper clergy and also the military.
Who are liberals and what did they believe in?
liberals believed in enlightenment ideals-capitalism, religious toleration, government by consent and government under laws. Made up by the bourgeoisie or middle class. They wanted free markets, free enterprise and not mercantilism. It wanted the rule of law.
When did liberalism triumph.
It triumphed in britain in 1824 and in france in 1830.
What did conservatives assume that when liberals wanted freedom that they really wanted?
they wanted freedom from authority
What did conservatives believe that an ordered society would bring about, about the church, and how did they go about enforcing their beliefs?
they believed that an ordered society would bring more personal choice, because it was best achieved under absolutist rule. They emphasized history for support. They wanted the church as the human institution for moral force and to keep society on rails. They wanted one single sponsored faith and the moral requirements to be written into the civil law-meaning it had to be enforced no matter whether the person believed in them or not. They also liked having a strong army to do police like work in maintaining domestic peace and fighting off foreign enemies. It was basically a force to remove troublemakers from society.
What is the top priority for conservatives?
social order and domestic peace
Who are the two powerful spokesman during the post-Napoleonic years for traditional conservatism? Describe their beliefs.
Maistre and Burke. Burke believed that the American revolution was a good thing because it keeps the traditions of the British life and government. He also believed that the French Revolution was a bad represention of ancienty history and traditions. Demaistre believed pessimistically about humanity. He believed ppl. were incapable of governing themselves. He believed in the strong institutions of History, tradition, faith and order-which meant he wanted an army also.
Why do conservatives not have much faith in ppl.?
They believed that giving ppl. the power would just cause turmoil and they aren't capable of governing.
What is the today's conservative party's name? where were they in power? what did they do and why?
The tory party, power in britain, they felt threatened by the rise of the working or middle class, and large numbers of veterans returning from the Napoleonic wars, therefore they created the corn laws.
What are the Corn Laws?
the Tory party placed a tax on imported grain so that it would cause the working class to lose all their money and help the landowners because they could get the income.
What is the peterloo massacre?
The tory party put down a meeting of the angry in the St. Petersburg field of Manchester, the first industrial city by woudning 400 and killing 11. This caused them to clamp down on all public meetings and to suspend the writ of the habeas corpus.
What did Prime minister Peel do and what effect did this have on the Whig party and the Tory party?
eased on the Tory repression and then the Whig party won the HOuse of Commons and they put up the Parliamentary Reform Act of 1832-this act only began to democratize parliament. It ensure the triumph of liberalism. The House of Lords blocked the Reform act and then the king threatened to swamp the House of lords with Whig nobleman and they gave in allowing the Conservative restoration to pass.
What is the philosphy of the Whigs?
government is best that governs least.
What did Louis XVIII do in France?
restored the Bourbon dynasty, granted a charter, and retained the Code de Napoleon allowing law to prevail.
Who came in rule after Louis XVIII? what did he do to France?
Charles X-he believed the wealthy were entitled to rule and the poor should be jailed. He forced the poor out of their homes and allowed the nobility to get their land back and also taxed the poor. He dissolved the National Guard, returned education to the Catholic church and also tried to replace the tri-color flag with the old royal fleur-de-lis. He also was engineering a coup against the charter his brother had made.
Who came into play after Charles X?
Louis Phillipe who put a shutdown in July of the actions of Charles X, which would be called the July Monarchy and made it liberal and bourgeois regime.
What are the beliefs of liberals?
they have faith in ppl. that they can make wise choices. They believe that the government should be below the ppl. and that will lead to individual freedom and creativity that will inrease wealth and production. They think that society will not dissolve into chaos and disorder. They embodied the ideals of Enlightenment.
What are the ideals that Liberals believe in?
Constitutions, rule of law, toleration, civil rights, human rights, personal freedoms, economic freedom such as a market economy and capitalism. They also wanted the Laissez faire to be adopted. Nationalsim was also a liberal idea.
What is nationalism?
power came from the people
What did liberals fair in relation to land?
they feared that a majority of the poor would vote to confiscate private property and so they advocated a Limited Franchise or restricted ballot.
What is limited franchise?
a restricted ballot, restricted to a certain net worth in order to vote.
What is Universal Manhood Suffrage? and how was it viewed?
giving all men the right to vote, seen as a radical form of liberalism
Who were the two theorists of liberalism?
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
What did Jeremy Bentham believe in?
he believed in Utilitarianism-he thought that self interest was the great motivator. people should seek pleasure and avoid pain and that the government should provide the greatest amount of happiness to the greatest number. He thought it was best for the government to let the ppl. live their lives they way they saw best fit.
What did John Stuart Mill believe in?
first articulated the concept of supply and demand, believed in constitutions, toleration, and individual freedom, but thought about the needs of society as a whole to protect the weak from the agresive.
What do free market conservatives emphasize? What do Social conservatives emphasize?
free market conser.-individual freedom
social conserv-powerful govern. ordering on the people
What powered Western Europe after 1830?
What are standards of living?
the sum total of goods and services available to a person or country.
What is technology?
the pracitical application of science for industrial and commerical purposes.
What type of changes occured that began industrialism?
Where did industrialism begin?
in Britain
What is the first pre-condition for the beginning of industrialism in Britain?
agricultural breakthroughs, enclosure
What is enclosure?
the word given to all of the reorganization of agriculture.
What is transportation and what lead to it?
the sentencing of those who lost their way to earn a living in the fields because of be sent to Botany Bay.
What all increased the agricultural productivity?
the invention of the seed drill by Jethro Tull, the two field crop rotation and the introduction of two new world crops-potato and corn
Who invented the seed drill?
Jethro Tull
What was the second pre-condition of Britain and how it helped industrialism to begin there?
toleration-it helped with the receptiveness of enlightenment ideas, which made it open to creativity.
What is the third pre-condition?
rule of law-government under the law. The Contract law-a deal made is a deal kept and enforceable by law under threat of severe penalty. Patent law-inventors could profit from their own inventions by granting them exclusive rights to an invention for a period of time.
What is the fourth pre-condition?
What is commerce?
the exchange of goods
What is capitalism?
a system in which individuals invest in capital goods and hire labor, for the purpose of providing goods and services that will earn them more money.Increased total wealth of our economy and advanced iwth industrialism.
What is capitalism usually equated with?
Private enterprise-because most capitalist enterprises are privately owned for private profit
What is industrialism about?
Division of labor and the substitution of hand labor with machines
What is the division of labor?
dividing up the process of making things which vastly improved the Productivity
What is productivity and what increased it?
the total output per person per day, division of labor and machines
What are the importance of machines?
they organized capital, work and resources and money. They transformed family life, gender roles and whole class structure
How is cloth made?
card and comb the fiber, spun on a spinning wheel.Then the thread had to be woven into clothes.
What are two machine inventions and what did they do?
Spinning Jenny- a water-powered device to spin multiple spindles at once and the Water Frame-took the yarn and matted it and twisted it tighter into thread
What made the industrial revolution so revolutionary?
The Work to Ownership relationship
Who brought instrialism to American and how?
Samuel slater knew all the lastest textile machinery in england and therefore, built the mills here. The AS& B mill ended up being a success and they replicated their mills.
Who invented the cotton gin and whta did it do?
took the seeds out fo the cotton, Eli Whitney
What did cotton profits depend on?
Slave labor
What was the other invention Eli Whitney made other than the cotton gin?
American System of Interchangeable parts
Who invented the condensing steam engine?
Who invented the improved version of the Newcomen engine?
Who applied the Watt engine to create the steamboat?
Robert Fulton
What invention came after the steamboat? and what did it perfect?
sail technology, perfect clipper ships
Who invented the steam locomotive and what was its purpose?
George Stephenson-a land vehicle
What was the railroad that chartered to connect Baltimore with the back country across the mountains?
Baltimore and Ohio railroad-B& O railroad.
What was the longest railroad in the world?
South Carolina Railroad
What is the Best Friend of Charleston?
the little engine that hauled the first train that went Ka-Blam
What was the importance of railroads?
opened up an inland of Division of labor- a)resources could be brought cheaply to new facotries by rail and 2)finished goods could be distributed over a wide market area
What makes it where railroads can reach its full effectiveness? in what century?
Steel-creates wide, inter-regional markets begins to reach its full effectiveness in the 19th century
What are four indespensable components to the industrial revolution? and what machinery forms these components?
engineering, capital, professional management, and labor, steam locomotive
What are two characteristics of steam locomotives that links industrialism to romanticism?
locomotives being honest because you can see all their parts and also it created a sense of adventure for traveling
what is the importance of the John Deere self scouring steel plow?
it turned prairie sod for the land with grasses that sunk deep, in the world's greatest agricultural resources which was in the American prairer. It fed the working class.
What is the importance of Ukraine?
of southern Russia was a mighty prairie, largest grain exporter of the 19th century
What happened with the British Repealed the Corn Laws?
the price of food went down and therefore destroyed agriculture because she couldn't compete with American grain
What is free trade and describe its importance?
free trade is letting a country do what it does best and then allow another country to exchange with it with what the other country does best. This benefited Britain since it wasnt very good with agriculture but very very good with manufacturing.
What did the Crystal palace represent for Britain?
it represented that she had the power, capital, labor, skilled and otherwise, energy and creativity because it held all of her created machinery. She mastered technology.
What is the Western Union?
patents fostered a telegraph monopoly, nobody could compete with them because they had all the key patents
What is the Bessemer Process?
the process of transforming iron into steel by adding oxygen-important because it produced more steel which could be used for trains-rails, bridges, steel cars
Who is Andrew Carnegie?
the largest steel producer in the US
What is the imporance of steel in relation to railroads?
it allows railroads to open up its full potential of long, heavy, fast trains that allowed a large scale of division of labor
Who are the New Men of Britain? what was the French's nickname for them? why are they important?
the industrial rich , Nouveau Riche, they are creating new wealth, they are smug, aka Entrepreneurs-creative risk takers
Why are corporations important?
they bring capital together by promising Limited Liability.
What is limited liability?
you can lose a limited amount of money butyou were not personally responsible for all the company's debts
What is a charter?
a document issued by the government that gave the corp. the right to exist and delineate exactly what was expected of it.
What did corporations separate?
ownership from management.
Who are the Board of Directors?
looked after the stockholders' interests
What is the remarkable consequence of the industrial revolution?
the working class
What is the working class?
a dependent class, on the factory to provide a job,
Who are Utopian Socialists?
they recognized that the working class had to work the hardest and make the least money and risk their lives..therefore the created industrial communities so everyone would trade with one another
Who are Robert Owen, Saint-Simon and Fourier?
they all created Utopian communities
What are trade unions and what did they achieve?
they are wrokers that pooled their demands to the business and stopped working until the business would engage in Collective bargaining-and then sign a agreeing contract
What is socialism?
nothing is more important to most people than their livelihood.
What was the purpose in the working class consciousness?
the workers would join a mass movement to elect socialism to power-the people should own the enterprises not corporations, therefore the government should have ownership
Who gave a non-Utopian its start?
Karl Marx
What did Karl Marx predict?
that there would be a showdown btwn. industrial class and the working class for the control of government and society
What is the Dictatorship of the Proletariat?
the proletariat meaning the mass of the working people seize power and run the factories for their own benefit.
What are the benefits of corporations?
thousands benefit from them because so many have purchased stock that provides capital to the corportations to pay for businesses such as a railroad that requires an extreme amount of money. It also brings Limited Liability.
What is productivity?
the value of the total work per person per day
What is collective bargaining?
point at which the people of a union and the business would get together and make an agreement
What is a contract?
the union will provide labor at an agreed rate of pay under agreed working conditions for a specified length of time.
Which was the first industry to unionize and what do unions form?
Brotherhood of Locomotive engineers
What three major labor unions were formed during the chartist movement?
What is socialism?
nothing is more important than the people's livelihood and the power is supposed to be in the ppl's hands.
Who was Karl Marx? and what did he predict would come about? what did he write?
gave non-Utopian socialism its start. predicted the Dictatorship of the Proletariat would come about..there seize of the working people to power,Capitalist Manefesto
What is the problem with ppl. having the power in the government?
the government will give too much..therefore higher wages and therefore companies will go broke
What is romanticism?
an artistic and intellectual reaction against Enlightenment rationalism that stressed Freddom, nature and emotion.
Who is Beethoven?
wrote a product of Enlightenment rationalism, chamber orchestra. His best work was the Fifth Symphony-the best known classical piece of all time. he represented romanticism.
What is different about Beethoven's ninth symphony?
he added chorus to it and it was classicism.
Who is Franz Liszt?
he is the piano master of his time. a true romantic at heart, the first true celebrity. He wrote Dance of death.
Who is Hector Berlioz?
he is the pinnacle of ultimate romanticism. He wrote Requim.
How are romanticism and nationalism related?
they complement one another
What is the Argentine Republic?
in Buenos Aires a Spanish revolt took place. General San Martin led an Argentine force against the Spanish stronghold at
What is the importance of Chile?
Napoleon took control. But Bernardo O'Higgens rebeled against Spain and the Republic of Chile was born.
Who made Brazil win its independence and how?
Dom Pedro rebelled against his father and declared independence
Who defeated the turks for the Greek and declared Greek independence?
What art was a powerful force for nationalism?
romantic music
Who wrote operas of nationalism? and what is his best piece?
Verdi, Aida
Who was the master nationalist pianist? and what ethniticity is he?
Chopin, Polish
Who directed their national music to the Norweigian ppl?
Grieg and Isben
What is one of the greatest stirring anthems of all time?
Who ruled Belgium?