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31 Cards in this Set

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Carolingian Renaissance
widespread intellectual activity in Western Europe
encouraged by Charlemagne
increased studies in literature, writing, arts

art, religion, culture, architecture
Charles Martel
Leader of the Franks before Charlemagne, he was neot officially King
considered 'second founder of the Frankish State' for defeating the invading Muslim army
King of the Franks from 768
Expanded the Frankish Kingdom
Carolingian Renaissance was under his rule
Norse (Scandinavian) explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the late eighth to the early eleventh century.[1] These Norsemen used their famed longships to travel as far east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia, and as far west as Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland.
describes the political and economic situation in 11th and 12th century Europe.(glossary)
where someone granted something of value-usually land, but sometimes money-to someone else in return for service of some kind.
subordination by the recipient towards the giver-recipient became 'vassal', giver became his 'lord'
contract called a 'fief'
William the Conqueror
Duke William of Normandy, who laid claim to the British crown and conquered King Harold to claim it, became King William the Conquerer
Capetian Dynasty
Nomads whose homeland was North of the Gobi Desert, now called Mongolia
Series of wars undertaken to free Jerusalem and the Holy Lands from Muslim control

Magna Carta
'Great Charter' of 1215 signed by King John of England, which limited the King's fiscal powers and is seen as a landmark in the political evolution of the West. (glossary)

The Magna Carta (the Great Charter) was a series of concessions made by King John I (1199-1216) to his rebellious English barons. The failures of the Third Crusade, the expensive ransom of King Richard I, territorial losses in France and a bitter dispute with the Church provoked great unrest in the kingdom. In the Charter, John I recognized the liberties of his vassals, the clergy and the towns and swore to govern by due process of law. Although not a bill of rights, the document did formally define the rights of the barons for posterity.
King John I
Lost lands to France
Tried to raise funds to recover these lands by imposing heavy taxes
Was forced to sign the 'Magna Carta' which made the king bound by law
taxation could not be raised by the crown without consent of the nobility
Papal Monarchy
p 267
Papal monarchy is simply the head of the Catholic Church--the Pope and the Cardinals being the highest ranked in the hierarchy.The Catholic Church is an absolute elected monarchy;popes are chosen to head the church by a college of cardinals.
Quite simply,the Catholic Church is ruled by the Pope;he is a monarch.The Vatican is considered a monarchy.It is also known as The Holy See and it an elective absolute monarchy.
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Italian priest of the Catholic Church in the Dominican Order, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus and Doctor Communis.
"Aquinas" refers to his residence rather than his surname.
Mongols (Tatars)
Nomadic people that occupied what is now Mongolia
Ivan IV the Terrible
p 312
Black Death
The epidemic of bubonic and pneumonic plague that ravaged Europe, 1347-1350, killing 40% of European population. (glossary)

People usually died w/i a week, some survived, some did not catch it
Hundred Years War
Long conflict fought mostly on French soil, between England and France, centering on English claims to the throne of France (glossary)
p 314

Author of Canterbury Tales

was an English diplomat, translator and poet who held several important positions in the household of King Edward III
Term meaning 'rebirth' that historians use to refer to the expanded cultural production of European nations between 1300-1600. (glossary)
Medieval program of study built around the seven liberal arts: grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. (glossary)
Leonardo da Vinci
Florentine artist who painted 'The Last Supper', Mona Lisa
Michelangelo Buonarotti
painter, sculptor, architect & poet
painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel depicting scenes from the book of Genesis 1508-1512
later in 1596 painted the 'last Judgement' on the altar wall
Raphael Santi
Italian painter noted for his warmly human treatment of religious subjects, particularly his Madonnas and large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome (glossary)
p 353
John Calvin
Ulrich Zwingli
remissions of the penances owed by Catholics as part of the process by which their sins are forgiven
Martin Luther
Salvation by Faith
Prince Henry the Navigator
Spanish term for conqueror, applied to European leaders of campaigns against indigenous peoples in central and southern America (glossary)