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270 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
While France fights wars, _______________ hunts down "alleged spies" to 50000-60,000 frenchmen (including the King and Queen).
Ropes Pierre
___________ is labeled enemy of the state (after failed suicide attempt, laid in court while everyonoe watched him die).
Ropes Pierre
Who believed that we should force people to do what's best for the community?
What philosopher did Ropes Pierre emulate when he tried to make Frenchmen "free"?
From ____ to _____ there showed a ruthless, anarchistic, showed possibilities/dangers of political power in France.
During the 1800s people began to associate ___________ with revolution and war.
democratic change
What was the 3rd phase of the French Revolution?
The Napoleonic Phase
In 1974, a director was called to order in France to restore peace after _________.
the reign of terror
After the French Revolution, much of the country developed a rich _________.
Napoleon is part of the upper middle class, and he at first began as an _______________.
artillerary officer
Napoleon showed tremendous acumen, representing the ________ of France.
new ideals
Before the French revolution, ______ and ________ determined your greatness.
name and family
Naploen becomes a ___________ of the public, thus letting him rise as a member of the directory.
Eventually, Napoleon gains complete control of __________ in 1799.
the directory
In what year did Napoleon join the directory?
Why was 1804 a big milestone for Napoleon?
Napoleon does away with ideas of republic and begins to call himself "the emporor".
Why is Napoleon able to label himself "the emperor"?
He is able to do this because of his military experience, and because all other polticians seem corrupt.
Who is Touissant L'overture?
He is a military man in San Doman who rises up against France for independency, beating Napoleon, thus letting San Doman become Hati.
Toussiant L'Overture tried to explain that San Domaing people should be _________.
Why were the people of San Domain not free?
they were slaves on the sugar plantations there
How did the ideals of the French revolution ignite this revolt?
France's ideas that all men are equal contradicted with the thoughts that they still had slaves.
________ under Toussiant did not like living under a black man.
French whites living
___________ explodes under a sort of civil war because whites don't want to recognize blacks as citizens.
San Domang
Napoleon sends troops against __________________.
Toussiant L'Overture
What year did Napoleon pull out of San Domang?
1804, country offically becomes Hati
Toussiant L'Overture _____ before he could see Hati.
How did the people of Hati feel about fighting France?
Like they had good reason, because they felt like France was abusing its power.
France and Hati revolutions embody the philisophical ideas of who?
John Locke
What are the three ideals of the French revolution?
liberty, pertinity, and equality
After 1804, Napoleon invades what countries?
Belgum and Germany
While in Germany nd Belgum, what does Napoleon do?>
he abolishes serfdom

abolishes various legal persecution against Jews
what is serfdom?
it is when you are tied to the land, labor belongs to the Lord
Napoleon creates ________ with Pope that says France is a Catholic nation.
Why does the priest agree with Napoleon?
Because Napoleo admits that priests were killed in the french revolution and he oathes that it willl never happen again.
What happens if you do not obey Napoleon?
You go to hell.
What was Napoleon's greatest accomplishment?
The Napoleonic code.
What is the Napoleonic code?
gathers all laws of France and creates one legal system for all people in France, filled with all sorts of interesting laws. It takes away privleges from nobility.
After Napoleon, how did people raise up in France?
by merit, not aristocracy
The law under Napoleon respected __________.
With the respect for authority what could fathers do to their sons?
Fathers could legally kill their own sons.
Whle it was illegal for women to have extra-marital sex, men....
were allowed to have mistresses (under Napoleon's rule)
What happened in 1804 to Napoleon?
He took the crown of the Holy Roman Empure from the pope. Great Britan became very worried over this great strength.
In 1808, Napoleon invades ________.
What are Moguls?
mercenaries of the French military
Who has the most dynamic ships during the early 1800s?
Great Britan
When did Napoleon invade Russia?
Why did Napoleon lose the war with Russia?
Because the French werent used to the cold Russian weather
What happens in 1813 to Napoleon?
He is humiliated. The french senates decides to exhile him onto an island.
After the revolution there are....
greater individual rights, representative government, and nationalism
The 19th century period could be classified as the age of the __________.
What is the bourgoise?
it's a french term for being middle class
___________ values of bourgoise characterize France during the 1800s.
Wars with Prussia, Austria resulted in loss of __________ due to Napoleonic period.
a million French soldiers
Between 1789-1815 ___________ die as a result to French revolution.
two million people
Although the Frecnh aristocracy may have lose important political positions...
but nobility contiues to be a very strong political force.
Napoleon imprisoned ____________, then Napoleon invaded Spain.
The king of spain
the whole idea of __________ doesn't make sense in Spain, expeirece of being under Napoleonic control leads to _______.

leads to rebellion in which Spain colonies break away from France
________ eventually starts to embody the ideas of the French revolution.
Inside of Europe, there is a general shift away from ideals of ___________ that result from Napoleon's desire, a desire to fix the map.
French revolution
People in _______ or ___________ who look to American revolution and are inspired by it.
Italy or Germany
_______ writes a lot later after the time he was a boy.
When was the Age of Reaction?
Between 1815-1848, return of conservatism, place we see conservatism is the peace treaty of Vienna
Leaders of Europe came to _________ to tell France that they are under a monarchy.
Congress of Vienna attempts to reestablish a __________.
____________ was agreement of leaders of Austia, Prussia to police country by force.
Congress of Vienna
Who was Clemins Von Metternich?
one of the most important political minds.

Very concerned with monarchy.
wants to continue post-french revolution.

Afraid of change (war, bloodshed)
The Congress of Vienna doens't like the drama included in the __________.
French revolution
What did Sir Edmund Burke writer?
"Reflections of Revolution in France"
What does Sir Edmund Burke say in "Reflections of Revolution in France"?
he criticisex what happens in France as horrible, something that was against nature

famous for writing pages and pages about Marie Antionette, and how she represented beauty

something so foreign in England and the rest of Europe, not only is French revolution wrong in England.
What type of thinker was Burke?
An anti enlightment thinker

Burke thought that the englightment was bad because it led peope to believe they were all ewual
What did Burke believe about the middle and poor class?
That the didn't have the spirit in which the nobility did in the governmen
What did Burke think revolution led to?
Burke believed that somewhere along the line of englightment, France had become....
Who wanted to reestablish the church after the revolution?
Metternich and Burke
Who was the Congress of Vienna made out of?
royal families and royal diplomats, kind of cut out of same elite as Burke to redarw the map of Europe
What is a quadruple alliance?
between England, Prussia, Russia, and Austria were doing war against any revolution against kings of europe
What was going on in spain during the age of reaction?
liberals generals unhappy with king, so they make him accept parliamnet.
What country went to Spain and put down liberal rebellion?
Tzar Alexander, an arocratic leader, is insitant n putting __________ in France.
When Napoleon comes in he introduces freedom to serfs...
, who are not allowed to leave their land
Why would the Tzar of Russia want a constitution in France, but not his own country?
To prevent uprising iin France, this Tzar who has little desire for liberal reform knows that people of France had taste for liberty and working with authority.
Russia's not too happy about Tzar's influence over _____________.
French constituiton
When in war, ____________ rises.
Napoleon's force influenced....
Who is Yan?
guy who is angry that Napoleon could inflict, designed to improve German culture
________ argues for constant sports promgram to do gymnastics, things that make us different from France
What were some problems with the Congress of Vienna?
bias in favor of elites

nothing about Congress of Vienna, disappears ideals of French revolution
monarch abusing his power, reating American colinists like...
second class citizens
After 1789, middle class bougieous led revolution, eventully resulting in death of _________.
king and queen
In the 1820s, English writers were talking a lot about...
the industrial revolution`
There were significant amoutns of changes in ____________ during the late 18th century in Great Britan.
economical output
During the industrial revolution, there is also an ______________ that signifigantly changes.
During the late 18th century in Great Britan, during the agrarian revolution....
the city population grows
# of people working on ________ becomes less and less.
farmland (1820s)
Due to technological advnace, farming is able to create extra _______.
In the late middle ages, there were certain crops that were good to introduce ____________ into field.
Crop rotation makes ___________.
crops perfected
farmers with extra wheat sold it and became...
introduced into the market
landowners began to enclose territorties...
to keep out peasants/sqautters (1820s)
What was one of the biggest technological advances for the agraian revolution?
Market for cities for wheat drives ___________ in France.
the industrial revolution
Why is Britan removed from the wars?
because it was an island, so no one really messed with it.
Why does England flourish during industrial revolution?

has lots of ports,

continues to be dominant power due to connections to India and slave trade
Banks will invest in various _________ to gain money.
ventures (1820)
Capitalism is willing to go trough short term hurt for....
long term gain.
_______ connect major networks by controlling cities that are rapidly growing.
Who are Luddites?
artisans, in early ages, that middle class worker who works with hands, people that made everyday things to produce iron gates, doors and furniture called an artisan.

artisans are threatened by machines
__________ hated machines.
In 1819, some _______ people rallied in a big field, an illegal demonstration, to revolt the British government about....

living conditions, work hours
The industrial revolution in England is more of a __________________.
textile revolution
Bringing doen 5 or 6 workers to extrapolate fules....
or coals
steam engine colleccts a lot of ______ that is muggy
The Industrial Revolution expands into continents by...
1830-1840, in France, Belgum, and lower germnay
What is the ugly side of indutrail revolution?
child labor
What are some tremendous places of growth in the United States?
Boston, Phildelphia, New York (yet all are primarily surrounded by farmland)
Are there any cities in America that are over 100,000 people or more?
no. everyone lives in a city about the size of albuquerque
In 1860, the ppulations grow in theses cities.

In 1800 what was the population of American cities?

In 1860 what is the population of some of these american cities?
1800-five million

1860- 30 million in the US
By the 1860s, there are 9 cities with _____________ or more.
100,000 people
British and America worked together to create _________.
guns, due to the interchangeable parts and results of mass production
Early on, the U.S. understood the importance of ________ and ____________.
canals and bridges
Cities, in the 1860s, become hots spots for urban __________.
with more men moving west, factories begin to employ ________ and __________.
women and children
Why are women and children good for lower salaries?
because they cant vote and because factories can create a high profit margin by doing so.
What did they use to fix parts of machines they couldn't reach?
The situation in England had surplus of food which enabled....
more people to be better fed
Ireland experienced the _________ famine.
Irish lived in poor situations like ___________.
Idaho has a similar climate as __________.
Once the potatoe planted, it ....
did very well
_______ was a more nutrious crop than ________.

Between 1780-1850 the _____________ starts to grow.
Irish population
What was the cause of the potatoe fammine?
The potatoe was planted, there was a lack of warmth and this created a fungus mold which maade the potatoe unedible
What year did 1 million Irish die in the Potatoe Famine?
During the time of the potatoe famine, where was the irish selling all its stuff in order to go to what country?
What made it difficult for the Irish to find jobs in America?
antagonism and stereotypes
By the 1850s, cities are no lojnger what?
meeting laces

instead thaey are places of work, places to buld and ship things
Although people are working all day, during the 1850s they are still ___________.
living longer
What did the cities of the 1850s look like?
covered in human waste

the sky was full of ash, most people were living in small apartments

clothes lines slums
Who started to leave cities?
the upper class because of the pollution

most businesses have interest in my the cities, but they have no interest living there.
what is a planned community?
people living in cities where you are commited to pay for expenses to keep in community
Places where people have bathrooms, instead people ...
go outside because bathrooms are so dirty
___________ were often used as sweres or open drains (potatoe peels, urine)
city streets
Over the 19th the _________ class includes laywers, doctors, but also inventros.
During the 19th century many ________ is marrying into the noble.
This merging of classes in the 19th century leads to what?
a push for middle class to give them the same voting rights as the nobles
What is liberalism?
industrialization gave rise to liberalism (to make free, or to liberate), wants to do constitutional reform, wants to protect individual civil rights, wants to set the individual free from politics and the economy
What is another term for "liberals"?
the childen of the enlightenment
What did liberals believe?
tha if you leave individual free to work and succed, you will have a better society
Who is Jeremey Benthem?
He believed that if we as a society organize government and laws so interest of most is pursued then the one, this is the best way.
What is Utilitarianism?
the bes way in government is to see how many people will be hurt by a sort of law
What class was Jeremey Benthem?
middle class

Benthem also wanted to protect the middle class so that a man could become anything he wanted
Who is John Stewart Mill?
wrote "on liberty". Ideas were different from utlitarianism. Could be in a potentional situaion where you are right just because you have law doesn't
What did Mill and his wife argue against?
Femminist Writers,and if the idea that if you are truly commited to liberalism, you should prevent them from entereing universities because women are capable
Why did Wolestonecraft believe that women were't as smart?
Because they weren't as educated
Who is Robert Owen?
Robert Owen started his own commune to create a new society
What kind of society did Robert Owen want to create?
A new society where classes didn't butt heads, an idealic place where everyone knows their place
RObert Owen's society was an example of an attempt to build a __________.
communes were not really _______ situations. Why?

even if you came in and had money, that still made you more important and have a higher status
Who is Charles Bouya?
he beleived that work is dehumanizing, that it is possible to strcuture the day around enongh work/play if it is organized to meet needs of community.

competitive nature of man is normal.

Believed that if you study children young, you could see waht they should grow up to be (if they are violent, maybe they should be a butcher, ect.)
Who was the first to create a commune schueduled around working and communal breakfasts and times for love making?
Who was willing to accept all forms of sexuality?
Fourier, he believed that any form of sexuality was okay as long as it didn't harm anyone.
Fourier is alwso quite a _________, the only thing that he believes is diffent is biological aspects.
Who comes after Owen anf Fourier?
Marx and Engels
Marx and Engels believed in the creative power of ___________________.
class conflict
Between 1830-1948 tiny revolutions crop up around Europe. who started them?
liberals are making allainces with workers and peasants
The 1948 revolts in the Balkans were about what?
Peasants were trying to access forest rights because the lord has power over the forests

Peasant population grows in Europe, and they need bigger housing needs to to need for lumber
What were the 1830-1848 revolts about?
Europe can't stop epidemics such as crop famines, s nthe people rise up for newer rights
By 1848 the city is much __________ than in 1750.
croweded, dirtier and louder
Where was Karl Marx born?
Marx was educated in _________.
WHat was Marx's religious belief?
Marx was almost always living on the verge of _________________. He lost a couple of _____________ to diseases. This soured him from city life.
financial collapse
Engels is like Marx's ___________.
sugar daddy
Who supported Marx while he wrote?
Marx tries to suggest that his verison of ______________, called communism is better than anything else.
Marx and Engels argue that history moves in a _________, ini a ____________.

This idea was burrowed by who?


Marx argues that everything boils down to __________.
Marx believes that the bougouise was built on the ____________.
sweat of the proletariet
If you just hammer over and over, you do not get the feeling that ____________.
you are helping society
Marx wanted workers to understand how they were being ________.
Marx and Engels eventualy wanted the _________________ to rule the country.
The Communist Manifesto inspiree generations of ____________.
What type of assumptions are probleatic for Marx and Engels?
human nature is to be competitive. We all don't want to be workers.
Who decided to build onto the railroads?
Napoloeon III
Who called for a new national bank to lend to businesses?
Napoleon III
1853-1856 was the _____________ War. Where did this war create?
in the area where Turkey Austria and Europe exist
How does Napoleon III get Great Britan to join?
because Russia/Turkey were fighting over trade routes
In the Cremini War, most say Napoleon III was ________________, trying to show people he wasn't a good _________.
itching for a fight

Napoleon III did what to the elections?
he riged them
The Cremini War was a _____________ war.
For the first time during the Cremini war, _______________ is available.
Why is newsprint so important?

literacy rises

more can read

middle class/elite can read
How does the Cremini War end?
Russia is humiliated by Great Britan and France
What does Alexander II do?
he wants the Tzar to cange the political structure of Russia
_________ peasants are the poorest in Europe.
What is realpolitik?
calls on kings/statesmen to go about making he space
Italy and Germany had never been one unified space, most Germans belonged to the ________________.
Holy Roman Empire
Who is Camilio de Cavour?
He with Vevalldi, go about trying to unify Italian Penisula for Italians
Who is Garbaldi
In Southern Italty, Gerbaldi, uncomfortable in political cicrles, more a military man. Led Italians to build groundwork for united territory in Italy.
_______________ get people excited about nationalism for Itla.
By ____________, Italy is a untied country, for first ti e italians hae soame space Italians have.
_______ was not happy with the consolidation of terriotry.
the Pope
The Ppe wil try to tell Italy that a unified country is wrong. WHy?
Because you are supposed to respect your religious leader
Why is Catholocism hostile to nationalism?
Christianity is an inclusive form of an ideology
Who is Otto Van Bismark?
wealthy land owner attempting to unfiy the country.
WHat kind of politician is a Realpolitik politician?
Why was Austria defeated?
It had a weak empire
In 1870, _________ declares war on France
Realpolitik politicains use ________________in order to make our nation great.
one country that seems to be at peace is _______________.
Great Briatin
Great Britan becomes a country of what?
slow steady successTh
What are some ways that Great Britian celebrates nationalism?
They give the queen a large dress with lots of crown or jewels
At a time when European nations were united, American countries were trying to________
stay together
_____________ becomes a big idea in the late 19th century.
Middle calss pastimes become very prevalent among the _________.
Late 19th century has ______________ in newspapers.
beauty ads
Marketing broke the stereotype that __________ wwre make up. Won women over with ______________ and _________.

department stores

bubble bathsbicucles!
What else becomes big during the late 18th century?
When do cities become electrified?
late 19th century
What does electrification allow?
safer neighborhoods, and people to stay up longer
In the late 19th century, scientists began to understand _______________.
By late 19th century cities were building ___________ to prevent disease
sewer systems
What document is this from?

"The honorable Baronet who has just sat down [Sir John Walsh] has told us, that the Ministers have attempted to unite two inconsistent principles in one abortive measure. Those were his very words. He thinks, if I understand him rightly, that we ought either to leave the representative system such as it is, or to make it perfectly symmetrical. I think, Sir, that the Ministers would have acted unwisely if they had taken either course. Their principle is plain, rational, and consistent. It is this, to admit the middle class to a latge and direct share in the representation, without any violent shock to the institutions of our country...The government has, in my opinion, done all that was necessary for the removal of a great practical evil, and no more than the necessary."
Speech on Parlimentary Reform

by T.B. Macaulay
Who conducted the "Speech on Parlimentary Reform"?
T.B. Macaulay
What document is this from?

"The population was singulary moved. Some of the boldest had proposed to the leaders of the isurrection--Santarose and Ansaldi, I think--to concetrate themeselves in, and take possession of the city, and organize a new resistance; but Genoa was found to be deprived of all means of successful defence; the fortresses were without artillery, and the leaders had rejected the proposition, telling them to preserve themselve for a better fate."
"Life and Writings of Joesph Mazzini"

by Joesph Mazzini
What did JOesph Mazzini write?
"Life and Writings of Joesph Mazzini"
What document is this?

"Five minutes before the beginning of the states hours of work until thier acutal commencement, a bell shall ring and indicate that every worker employed in the concern has to proceed to his place of work,, in order to start as soon as the bell stops."
"Factory Rules in Berlin"

What year were the "Factory Rules in Berlin" written?
What document is this from?

"Where domestics abound, and there is a hired hand for every kindly office, it would be a work of superergoation for the mistress of the house to step forward, and assist with her own; but where domestics are few, adn teh indivduals who compose the household are thrown upon the consideration of mothers, wives and daughters for their daily comfort, innumerable channels are opened for the overflow of those floods of human kindness, which it is one of the happiest and most ennbolding duties of woman to administer to the weary frame, and to pour into the wounded mind."
"Characterisitics of Women in England"

by Sarah Stickney Ellis
Who wrote "Characteristics of WOMen in England?"
Sarah Stickney Ellis
What document is this from?

"It is expected that at the termination of the second year, or between that period and the end of the third year, an association of memebr may be formed to constitue a community of equality and indepence to be governed according to theh rules and regulations contained in the printed paer....with such alternations as experience may suggest and the localities of the situation may require."
"Constitution of the Prelimary Soceity of New Harmony"

by Robert Owen
Who wrote "Constitution of the Preliminary Society of New Harmony"?
Robert Owen
What document is this from?

"And where our graves in verdue rise,
our children's chilren to the skies,
shall speak the grateful joy they feel,
and bless our names the while they kneel.
for by the Magyar's God above
we truly swear,
we truly swear the tyrant's yoke,
no more to bear!"
Sandor Petofi
"National Song" of Hungary
Who wrote the "National Song" of Hungary?
Sandor Petofi
What document is this from?

"I read and reread the manifesto. It was writeen in an elevated style by the old Metropolitan of Moscow, Philarete, but with a uselss mixture of Russian and OLd Slavonian which obscured the sense...Notwithstanding all this, one thing was evident: serfdom was abolished and the liberated serfs would get the land and their homsteads. They would have to pay for it, but the old stain of slavery was removed. They would be slaves no more; the reaction had not got the upper hand."
"Memoirs of a Revolutionist"

by Peter Kropotkin
Who wrote "Memoirs of a Revolutionist"?
Peter Kropotkin
What document is this?

"In the evenings we genereally sat together in the lobby. It was our free time, and I was told to say anything I liked. I used to sit far back on the deep seat with my hands on my lap, although there was a table in front. I liked to draw my own pictures, with the stars and shadows outside, and often my thoughts wwere with Bhasker, but I was always disturbed and told to talk. Generally, the ladies had some fancy work in their hands, but I never brought any. One day, Miss Roberts rebukd me and said: "Why did you not bring some work?"
"Saguna: A story of Native Christian Life"

By Krupa Sattianadan
Who wrote "Saguna: A Story of Native Christain Life"?
Krupa Sattianadan
What document is this from?

"Though the means just specified, aided perhaps by others is yet undiscovered, man has been raised to his present state. But since he attained to the rank of manhood, he has diverged into different races, or as they be more fitly called, subspieices. Some of these, such as the Negro and the European, are so distinct that, if specimens had been brought to a naturalist without any further information, they would undoubtedly have been considered by him as good and true species. Nevertheless al l the raes agress in so many unimportant details of structures and in so many mental pecularites, that these can be accounted for only be inheritence from a common progenitor, and a progenitor thus charactersized porbabaly desver to rank as man."
"The Descent of Man"

by Charles Darwin
Who wrote "The Descent of Man"?
Charles Darwin
What document is this from?

"At this time, as you know, a warshiop cannot carry more than fourteen days worth of coal, no matter how perfectly it is organized and a ship which is out of coal is a derelict on the surface of the sea, abandoned to thef irst perdon who comes along. Thence the necessity of having the oceans provision stations, shelters, ports for defence and revictuallyiong. ANd it is for this that we needed Tunisia, for this that we needed Saigon and the Meknong Delta, for this that we needed Madagascarm that we need DIego-Suarex and Vohemar and will never leave them. Gentlemen, in Europe as it is today, in this competition of so mnay rivals which we see growing around us sone by prefecting their military and maritime focres, others by prodigious development of an ever growing population; in a Europe, or rather in a universe of this sort, a policy of peaceful secultion or abstention is simply the higway to decadence. Nations are great in our times only by means of the activities which they develop; it is nnot simply "by the peacful shining forth of institutions that they are great at this hour."
"Speech before the French National Assembly"

by Jules Ferry
WHo wrote the "Speech before the French National Assembly"?
Jules Ferry
What document is this from?

"Take up the White Man's burden--
Have done with childish days---
The lightly proferred laural,
the easy, ungrudged praise,
Comes now, to search your manhood,
throguh all the thankless years,
cold, edged with dear-brough wisdom,
the judgement of your peers!"
"The White Man's Burden"

by Joesph Rudyard Kipling
Who wrote "The White Man's Burden">
Joesph Rudyard Kipling
What other book did Kipling write?
The Jungle Book
What document is this from?

"Here the madman fell silent and looked again at his listeners; and they too, were silent and stared at him in astonishment. At last he threw his latern on the ground, and it broke into pieces and went out. 'I have come too early," he said then; 'my time is not yet. This tremendous event is still on its way, still wandering; it has not yet reached the ears of men. Lightening and thunder require time; the light of the stars requires time; deeds, though done, still require time to be seen and heard. This deed is still more distant from them than the most distant star--and yet they have done it themselves.'"
"The Gay Science"

by Friedrich Nietzsche
What document is this from?

"We are in duty bound to make a thourough examination of this example. It must be instited that the most striking feature of this sexual actiivity is that the instic t is not directed towards other people, but obtains satisfaction form the subjects oen body, it is "auto erotic" to call it by a happily chosen term inrodesuced by Havelock Ellis."
"Infantile Sexuality"

by Sigmund Freud
Who was Toussaint L’Ouverture?
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture pronunciation (help·info), also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (c. 1743 - April 7, 1803) was one of the leaders of the Haïtian Revolution. Along with Jean-Jacques Dessalines, another leader of the Revolution, Louverture is considered as one of the fathers of the Haitian nation. (Although generalists often misspell Toussaint's adopted surname as L'Ouverture, historians prefer to use Toussaint's spelling of Louverture, which was also the spelling adopted by his son and brother.)
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)?
Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte) (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) under the name Napoléon I (Napoléon 1er) from 18 May 1804 to 6 April 1814, and was briefly restored as Emperor from 20 March to 22 June 1815. He was also King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine.
What is a Concordat?
A treaty between the Pope and other figures on how Catholic Church will be treated
What is the Napoleonic Code?
he Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force on March 21, 1804.
What is Congress of Vienna?
The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held on the way to Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. Its purpose was to redraw the continent's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France the previous spring. The discussions continued despite the ex-Emperor Napoleon I's return from exile and resumption of power in France in March 1815, and the Congress's Final Act was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo on June 18, 1815. Technically, one might note that the "Congress of Vienna" never actually occurred, as the Congress never met in plenary session, with most of the discussions occurring in informal sessions among the Great Powers.
What is Metternich?

lemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1859) was an Austrian politician, statesman, and one of the most important diplomats of his era. He was a major figure on the negotiations leading to the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paradigm of foreign policy management and a major figure on the development of diplomacy. He was the prime practitioner of 19th century diplomatic realism, deeply rooted on the balance of power postulates.
Who was Edmund Burke?

Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. He is chiefly remembered for his support of the American colonies in the dispute with King George III and Great Britain that led to the American Revolution and for his strong opposition to the French Revolution. The latter made Burke one of the leading figures within the conservative faction of the Whig party (which he dubbed the "Old Whigs"), in opposition to the pro-revolutionary "New Whigs", led by Charles James Fox. Burke also published philosophical work on aesthetics and founded the Annual Register, a political review. He is often regarded as the father of Anglo-American conservatism.[1]
What is liberalism?

Liberalism refers to a broad array of related doctrines, ideologies, philosophical views, and political traditions which hold that individual liberty is the primary political value.[1] Liberalism has its roots in the Western Age of Enlightenment, but the term has taken on different meanings in different time periods.
Who is Jeremy Bentham?

Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ['benθəm] or ['bentəm]) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He was a political radical and a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law. He is best known as an early advocate of utilitarianism and animal rights[1][2] who influenced the development of liberalism.
what is utilitarianism?

is the ethical doctrine that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility. It is thus a form of consequentialism. Utility — the good to be maximized — has been defined by various thinkers as happiness or pleasure (versus suffering or pain), though preference utilitarians like Peter Singer define it as the satisfaction of preferences, or "interests". While there is a tendency to consider only the well-being of humans when interpreting this doctrine, some utilitarians count the interests of any and all sentient beings when assessing overall utility.
who is John Stuart Mill?

John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), a British philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. He was an advocate of utilitarianism, the ethical theory that was systemised by his godfather, Jeremy Bentham, but adapted to German romanticism. It is usually suggested that Mill is an advocate of negative liberty. However, this has been contested by many academics, notably Dr. David Walker of Newcastle University in England. Toward the end of his life he called himself a socialist.
what is utopian socialism?

Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought. Although it is technically possible for any person living at any time in history to be a utopian socialist, the term is most often applied to those utopian socialists who lived in the first quarter of the 19th century. From the mid-19th century onwards, the other branches of socialism overtook the utopian version in terms of intellectual development and number of supporters. Utopian socialists were important in the formation of modern movements for intentional community and cooperatives.
what is socialism?

Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control.[1] This control may be either direct—exercised through popular collectives such as workers' councils—or indirect—exercised on behalf of the people by the state. As an economic system, socialism is often characterized by state or community ownership of the means of production.
what is a Proletariat?

The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. Originally it was identified as those people who had no wealth other than their sons; the term was initially used in a derogatory sense, until Karl Marx used it as a sociological term to refer to the working class.
Who was Napoleon III

Napoléon III Emperor of the French (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name Napoléon III, to 1870. He was the last monarch to rule France.
what is Realpolitik?

Realpolitik (German: real ("realistic", "practical" or "actual") and Politik ("politics")) is a term used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any "sentimental illusions". Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed by means of physical violence, political extortion or economic suppression, or to imply completely amoral politics aimed solely to achieve the goals by any means.
who is Camilo di Cavour?

tried to help unify italy
who was Guiseppe Garibaldi?

got people excited about unification in italy
Who is Otto von Bismarck?

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince von Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, Count von Bismarck-Schönhausen (April 1, 1815 – July 30, 1898) was a European statesman of the 19th century, born to a wealthy family. Since his earliest years, he demonstrated his patriotism for his country. As Minister-President of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he engineered the Unification of Germany. From 1867 on, he was Chancellor of the North German Confederation. When the German Empire was declared in 1871, he served as its first Chancellor.
what is Kulturkampf?

The German term Kulturkampf (literally, "culture struggle") refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck.
what is Paris Commune?
The term "Paris Commune" (French: La Commune de Paris) was the socialist government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally from 26 March) to 28 May 1871.
who is King Leopold II of Belgium?
Leopold II, King of the Belgians (Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor (French) or Leopold Lodewijk Filips Marie Victor (Dutch)) (April 9, 1835 – December 17, 1909) succeeded his father, Leopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. He was the brother of Empress Carlota of Mexico and cousin to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Outside of Belgium, he is chiefly remembered as the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project undertaken by the King to extract rubber and ivory, which relied on forced labour.
what is Chauvinism?
Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. Jingoism is a similar term of British derivation. A frequent contemporary use of the term in English is male chauvinism, which refers to the belief that males are superior to females. A similar concept discussed by a few misandry researchers is female chauvinism, or the belief that females are superior to males.