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29 Cards in this Set

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Albigensians
A heretical Sect that Pope Innocent III proclaimed a crusade against. Lived in a town in south France. Rejected orthodox doctrine on the relationship of God, and the clergy. The French monarchy joined the crusade and the Albigensians were defeated. Went against the sacraments and everything materialistic.
The Great Schism
there were 2 popes- one in Rome, and one in Avignon. People followed the Pope that their gov’t supported. Divided the people greatly.
Avignon Papacy
1309-1377. All the Pope’s are French. Big change b/c Popes used to be English. 1377-Gregory brings the Papacy back to Rome.
Pope Urban II
1095 in Clement France. Said to fight for your one true religion. Urges knights to fight for Jerusalem. Says if you die in this war you will go to heaven. If you win the Pope will give you land. Was very successful at getting knights to fight.
Children’s Crusade of 1212
Young French boy Seven of Cloise goes to village and says Christ visited him while he was in the field. Priest believes him, told Steven to take the children of France to the Holy Land. They marched through France collecting Children. Christ said the ocean will part for them…it did not happen. 2 men said they would take them to the Holy Land. 3 ships were lost and 2 were either killed or sold to slavery.
King Henry II
England developed Common Law. Is basis of legal system in England. Judges travel around country-makes law and justice available to all citizens. Extends royalty ideas into countryside. Makes a unified country, trial by jury, guilty until proven innocent.
Magna Carta
was written by the French and signed by King John of England. It was an apology to France. It came to signify that everyone including the King and the government must obey the law.
Exchequer
tax collector-helped build treasury.
Novel Disseisin
Protects property rights for people who are wrongfully disinherited. Makes the challenger to inheritance go to court.
Mort D’ancestor
must bring deed or proof to court to prove you inherit the land
Investiture Controversy
: King is giving priesthood to people through simony. Gregory threatens to excommunicate Henry IV. Everyone makes Henry Stop. Henry goes to Gregory to fix things and Gregory removes the excommunication. Henry then starts selling bishops again. Henry kidnapped Gregory and he is in exile. Is never settled.
Pope Gregory VII
first pope to emphasize the political authority of the papacy. Believed that kings failed to promote reform in the church prompted him to claim an active role in the politics of Western Christendom. Involved in the Investiture Controversy.
Henry IV
was appointing bishops and other clerical positions to people through simony. (investiture controversy).
Concordant of Worms
1122 a conference held in Worms, bishops were to be chosedn according to canon law (by the clergy) in the presence of the emperor or his delegate. Since the rulers could accept or refuse thy still could veto the appointments. Papal power was enhanced but neither side had a clear victory.
Manorialism
economic system practiced w/ in feudalism.
Guilds
Medieval answer to today’s labor union. Competition between members was not encouraged. Guild members controlled prices, everyone paid equal, work same hours. Guilds are responsible for educating their members so they can do their jobs. Children of members are educated so they can join. If a member dies they supported the family until they were back on their feet. Medical benefits.
Unum Sanctum
that all Christians were subject to the pope. Held that kings should submit to papal authority. No one is higher than pope b/c they answer to God.
Council of Constance
wanted to end the schism, reform the church from head to toe, and wipe out heresy. All they ended up doing was ending the schism.
Individualism
stresses self confidence. The genius of man, the possibilities of peoples talents- quest for glory,
Humanism
looking towards the genius of man but it looks to celebrate the genius of man in a way that gives responsibility of density to man (responsibilities to God and self)
-make the most of yourself for the glory of God.
The Inferno
has three parts as he travels through the 9 rings of hell. Lucifer is in 9th ring where devil lives…first book written in common language (Italian) therefore many are reading him. Written by Dante.
The Prince
period when Florence is going through a lot of upheavaval and may lose their #1 status. The Ends justify the means. Is it better to be feared than loved? Keep your friends close and your enemies closer.
Dante
a poet from 1265 to 1321 “abandon all hope, ye who enter here” wrote the divine comedy and the inferno.
Machiavelli
is an individualist from Florence enjoyed being a civil servant.
Peasants Obligation to the Lord
must obey the lord
Lord’s obligation to the peasant
Lord must provide safety
Lord’s obligation to the vassal
Provide court for complaints, if vassal dies provide guardian, helps find husband for vassals daughter, 40+ days expense paid vacation, pldge if vassal dies w/p an heir he’ll take the land.
Feudalism
a political, social, and economic system in the middle ages that included kings, vassals, knights, peasants, and fiefs.
Primogeniture
first man in the family inherits everything