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122 Cards in this Set

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Johannes Kepler
He discovered the laws of planetary motion, including the important facts of elliptcal orbits. German scientist who discovered planetary orbits are elliptical, not circular, and that the velocity of a planet is not uniform
Hermetic literature
this tradition emphasized the mathematical and magical characteristcs of nature and influenced such important scientific thinkers as Kepler and Newton
Robert Boyle
This English scientist argued that students of chemistry sould do lots of experiments; he also favored an atomic theory of matter. Englishman who strongly advocated the atomic explanation of matter, and gave rise to experimental method in chemistry.
Aristotle
This famous Greek thinker's ideas about nature were at the center of the medieval cosmology that Ptolemy solidified with his geocentric theory
Spinoza
This Jewish thinker was accused by his contemporaries of being an athiest because, according to them, he read and throught to much about science. Dutchman who tried to resolve the Cartesian problem of matter and spirit by positing that God is Nature
Ptolemy
Produced the ALMAGEST, a handbook of greek astronomy based on the theories of Aristotle. Ancient Greek philospher whose book, ALMAGEST theorized that the earth stood in the center of the universe
Neo-Platonists
in addition to the humanist study was the study of philosophy, mathematics, music, Greek, and Latin, and Arabic. They were a revival of Plato
Corpernicus
broke the traditional truth taught in universities; he became convinced that the sun was at the center of the universe. He undermined the system of medieval cosmology and made possible the birth of modern astronomy. Polish scientist whose book ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF HEAVENLY SPHERES, presented compelling evidence that the sun, rather than the earth, lies at the center of the solar system
Tycho Brahe
he build the finest observatory in Europe; his fame rests on his skill as a practicing astronomer
Galileo
was breaking with the older physics of Aristotle; he believed that beyond the visible world lay certain universal truths, subject to mathematical verification. He established the fundamental principle of modern science. Italian astronomer who observed that Jupiter has mmoons and that the Earth's moon is pitted, proving that the forces shaping the Earth apply equally to other celestial bodies.
Isaac Newton
formulated the mathematics for the universal law of gravitation and the nature of light. He is also accredited for his 3 laws that explained matter and motion
PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA
Isaac Newton published his findings in this successful book. It marked monumental achievements in the history of science.
Paracelsus
introduced the concept of diagnostic medicine. His treatments relied on chemicals instead of bloodleetting and astronomical positioning
Andreas Vesalius
Belgain surgeon who published "THE STUCTURE OF THE HUMAN BODY". He argued for the observation of the body by anatomical dissection
William Harvey
announced that he had discovered the circulation of blood; he compared the heart to a mechanical pump. Scientist who discovered the principles behind the circulation of blood through the human body by comparing the heart to a mechanical pump
Francis Bacon
he became suspicious of magic and the magical arts. He argued that science needed to be open and that all ideas must be allowed a hearing
Rene Descartes
"I think, therefore I am" was the idea in his mind that told of an idea of a supreme perfect being. He reasoned scientifically that God existed. French philosopher widely known for his deductive assertion, "I think, therefore I am"
Madame du Chatelet
she translated the Principia into French which allowed the Newtonian science into France
Voltaire
Perhaps the most famous Enlightenment philosophe, this author of CANDIDATE adopted a pen name and did much to popularize the Enlightenment
CHRISTIANITY NOT MYSTERIOUS
the freethinker John Toland published this work in which he argued that most religious doctrines contradicted reason and should be abandoned
Mary Wollestonecraft
This English author was a strong defender of liberty and a founder of modern feminism
Cesare Beccaria
This Enlightenment thinker, labeled a socialist by his opponents, thought that crime should be dealt with a more humanitarian manner and that punishment should be u sed to rehabilitate criminals. Wrote OF CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
Enlightened despotism
Enlightenment thinkers used this phrase to describe a strong monarchy that would enact rational reforms; the monarchy of Frederick the Great of Prussia is one example of this concept.
philosophes
the bold and witty satirists of clergymen, coutiers, and the pious
Immanuel Kant
in lieu of the enlightenment, he said its insistence that each individual should reason independently without recourse to the authority of schools, churches, or clergymen. He defined the enlightenment as "bringing light into the dark places of the mind"
salons
new form of secular culture run by women, philosophes gathered here to discuss ideas in the open
freemasons
a fraternity that evolved in the late 17th century out of the guilds of stonemasons. this group of men illustrates how the public sphere developed during the Enlightenment, since they met together as equals to exachange ideas.
Pierre Bayle
made an attack on Christian dogma; he saw it as a supersition that was much more dangerous than atheism
David Hume
a Scottish skeptic who attacked both revealed religion and the deists' natural religion. he maintained that all religion stemmed from human fear and supersition. This Scottish philosopher was deeply skeptical about the religious views of orthodox Christians and Deists, arguing that the idea of God grew out of people's fears and superstitions.
Thomas Hobbes
believed that self interest is a valid reason for engaging in political activity; he also refused to bring God into his system to justify the power of kings appointed by the people
John Locke
wrote TREATIES OF GOVERNMENT that was justification for the English Revolution; his theory was that the right to govern derived from the consent of the governed and was a form of contract. This author argued for limited government, and held that government has the right to govern if based on the consent of the people.
Montesquieu
He wanted to check the unbridled athority of the French Monarchs; he proposed the balanced system of government. This theorist admired balanced governments with an executive checked by a legislature, which helped to promote representative institutions
Rousseau
he pushed for people to choose the government and that it should be renewed and held responsible. Through him was the beginning of civil society. This Frenchman believed that the state should be founded upon the "general will" of the governed, and is known for writing THE SOCIAL CONTRACT
Tabula Rasa
this was Locke's view that the mind was a CLEAN SLATE. This concept, devised by john Locke, expressed the view that children start life morally neutral, and are influenced for good or ill by their environments
Adam Smith
the economist from the Enlightenment who pushed for entrepreneurship
WEALTH OF NATIONS
book written by Adam Smith; it regarded capitalism to be never inhibited by outside regulation and he hailed it as the most worthwhile economic system
ENCYCLOPEDIA
Published by Diderot, contained "everything that one needed to know"
Catherine the Great
her policies were based on aristocracy; she created a more secular educational system and sought to improve Russian industry. This monarch brought many of the Enlightenment's ideas and programs to Russia, and is considered an illustration of enlightened despotism.
First Estate
the order of the French society that contained the clergy
Second Estate
this term described the legal grouping in France which was the French nobility
Third estate
order of the French society that contained the nobility; Nobles held the highest position in the church, army, and government. This Estate contained France's most radical elements, namely those who would use violence to pursue their goal of social and economic equality.
bourgeoisie
consisted of merchant-manufacturers, wholesale merchants, bankers, master craftsmen, doctors, lawyers, intellectuals, and government officials. this group of people lacked social prestive. they sought to erase the stigma of common birth and to rise socially by becoming landowners
the French Peasantry
owned about 30-40% of the land, but each person owned barely enough to make a living. this group made up a vast majority of the population
Estates General
a medieval representative assembly divided into the traditional orders of clergy, aristocracy, and commoners
John Locke
wrote TREATIES OF GOVERNMENT that was justification for the English Revolution; his theory was that the right to govern derived from the consent of the governed and was a form of contract.
Montesquieu
He wanted to check the unbridled athority of the French Monarchs; he proposed the balanced system of government
Rousseau
he pushed for people to choose the government and that it should be renewed and held responsible. Through him was the beginning of civil society
Tabula Rasa
this was Locke's view that the mind was a CLEAN SLATE
Adam Smith
the economist from the Enlightenment who pushed for entrepreneurship
WEALTH OF NATIONS
book written by Adam Smith; it regarded capitalism to be never inhibited by outside regulation and he hailed it as the most worthwhile economic system
ENCYCLOPEDIA
Published by Diderot, contained "everything that one needed to know"
Catherine the Great
her policies were based on aristocracy; she created a more secular educational system and sought to improve Russian industry.
First Estate
the order of the French society that contained the clergy
Second Estate
this term described the legal grouping in France which was the French nobility
Third estate
order of the French society that contained the nobility; Nobles held the highest position in the church, army, and government
bourgeoisie
consisted of merchant-manufacturers, wholesale merchants, bankers, master craftsmen, doctors, lawyers, intellectuals, and government officials. this group of people lacked social prestive. they sought to erase the stigma of common birth and to rise socially by becoming landowners
the French Peasantry
owned about 30-40% of the land, but each person owned barely enough to make a living. this group made up a vast majority of the population
Estates General
a medieval representative assembly divided into the traditional orders of clergy, aristocracy, and commoners
Francis Bacon
he became suspicious of magic and the magical arts. He argued that science needed to be open and that all ideas must be allowed a hearing
Rene Descartes
"I think, therefore I am" was the idea in his mind that told of an idea of a supreme perfect being. He reasoned scientifically that God existed.
Madame du Chatelet
she translated the Principia into French which allowed the Newtonian science into France
Voltaire
Perhaps the most famous Enlightenment philosophe, this author of CANDIDATE adopted a pen name and did much to popularize the Enlightenment
CHRISTIANITY NOT MYSTERIOUS
the freethinker John Toland published this work in which he argued that most religious doctrines contradicted reason and should be abandoned
Mary Wollestonecraft
This English author was a strong defender of liberty and a founder of modern feminism
Cesare Beccaria
This Enlightenment thinker, labeled a socialist by his opponents, thought that crime should be dealt with a more humanitarian manner and that punishment should be u sed to rehabilitate criminals. Wrote OF CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
Enlightened despotism
Enlightenment thinkers used this phrase to describe a strong monarchy that would enact rational reforms; the monarchy of Frederick the Great of Prussia is one example of this concept.
philosophes
the bold and witty satirists of clergymen, coutiers, and the pious
Immanuel Kant
in lieu of the enlightenment, he said its insistence that each individual should reason independently without recourse to the authority of schools, churches, or clergymen. He defined the enlightenment as "bringing light into the dark places of the mind"
salons
new form of secular culture run by women, philosophes gathered here to discuss ideas in the open
freemasons
a fraternity that evolved in the late 17th century out of the guilds of stonemasons
Pierre Bayle
made an attack on Christian dogma; he saw it as a supersition that was much more dangerous than atheism
David Hume
a Scottish skeptic who attacked both revealed religion and the deists' natural religion. he maintained that all religion stemmed from human fear and supersition
Thomas Hobbes
believed that self interest is a valid reason for engaging in political activity; he also refused to bring God into his system to justify the power of kings appointed by the people
Estates General
a medieval representative assembly divided into the traditional orders of clergy, aristocracy, and commoners
CAHIERS DE DOLEANCES
each of France's three estates drew up these lists of grievances and suggestions in preparation for the meeting of the Estates general in May of 1789.
National Assembly
The third estate claimed this title as a revolutionary move. They were able to successfully challenge the nobility and defied the king. This was the body that was able to institute reform.
the Bastille
the fall of this royal fortress and prison in Paris on July 14, 1789 proved to be a pivotal step in the movement toward revolution in France.
the Great Fear
this term describes the revolutionary uprising in the French countryside in the summer of 1789; the French peasants carried out this wave of burning and destruction of nobles' property. Phase of the French Revolution in which rumors spread that goon squads were to rob and brutalize the peasants, which prompted the peasants to attack the homes of the artistocracy.
October Days
housewives stormed to Versailles to get the king and bring him back to Paris
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
expressed liberal and universal goals of the philosophes and the particular interests of the bourgeoisie. In this document, the national Assembly proclaimed the inalienable right to liberty, freedom of religion, and equal treatment under the law for citizens
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
altered the boundaries of the dioceses, reducing the number of bishops andn priests, and transformed the clergy into government officials elected by the people and paid by the state. This reform of the church passed by the national assembly made many positions in the church elective, and subordinated the church to the state.
sans-culottes
small shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners who propelled the Resolution toward Radicalism; they sought laws that prevented extremes of wealth and poverty
Jacobins
wanted a strong central government, supported temporary government controls to deal with the needs ot war and economic crisis. During the Reign of Terror, this political party used the guillotine to execute those people who were suspected to be enemies of the Revolution
la patrie
the nation, in which everything belongs
Robespierre
wanted to create a better socieety founded on reason, good citizenship, and patriotism. He considered the national general to be ultimate and infalliable.
Reign of Terror
poses fundamental questions about the meaning of the French Revolution and the validity of the Enlightenment conception of the individual.
the Thermidorean reaction
was a counter-revolution, abolished the law of the maximum and declared void the constitution of 1793. Phase of the French Revolution in which conservative bourgeoisie took control of the goverment from the radical Jacobin party - a counterrevolution
Gracchus Babeuf
regularly attacked the government, made aware the plot - Conspiracy of the equals. this person promoted early socialist ideas in Revolutionary France, but he was eventually executed for plotting against the Directory.
How do modern people view knowledge "authority" differently than did people before the Scientific Revolution?
modern people choose their knowledge authorities based on such things as education, creativity, etc.
Which of the following best describes Newton's contribution to the Scientific Revolution?
he brought together the work of several thinkers in a brilliant synthesis
Which of the following statements best summarizes the impact of Copernicus?
he challenged the prevailing view of the earth's place in the universe
Which of the following is the best definition of "science"?
knowledge
Which of the following statements best describes a significant outcome of the Scientific Revolution?
it paved the way for subsequent thinkers to see the world in purely secular terms
Which of the following is NOT one of the core values of the Enlightenment?
MATHEMATICS. the ones that ARE are natural law, nature, and reason
Which of the following would NOT be considered a source of the Enlightenment?
THE POLITICAL FREEDOM FOUND IN FRANCE. What WOULD be considered a source of the Enlightenment are a reaction to a corrupted Christianity, the impact of the scientific revolution, and a growing intellecutal community
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between Christianity and the Enlightenment?
Enlightenment thinkers were generally hostile to true Christianity
Which of the following is the best summary of Adam smith's view of economic behavior?
it is rooted in human self-interest
Which of the following statements best describes Hobbes' view of human naure?
humans are naturally vicious to one another
Which of the following would be part of a political revolution?
a mass movement
Which of the following is NOT one of the phases of a political revolution?
OUTSIDE INFLUENCES. What WOULD be a phase is preconditions, precipitants, and outcomes
Which of the following was NOT part of the French Revolution in its moderate stage?
THE TERROR. What WAS in moderate stage is the great fear, the threat of war against france, and "liberty, equality, fraternity"
Which of the following best describes the October Days?
it was when housewives from Paris led a march to Versailles to bring the king back to Paris
Which of the following would NOT be considered an outcome of the French Revolution?
IT ALLOWED THE RADICAL REVOLUTIONARIES TO GET PERMANENT CONTROL OF THE NATION. What WOULD be considered outcomes: gave practical expression to Enlightenment thinking, the later stages of the revolution saw France turn to a more conservative form of government, and it weakened the place of the church in French society.
Battle of the Nile
here, the British annihiliated Napoleon's Fleet; Napoleon was compelled to abandon any hopes of threatening India
Directory
When the French Revolution entered a new stage, the Directory was overthrown. Napoleon was brought to power. This term describes the government that was leading France prior to Naopoleon's taking France.
First Consul
this is the title of Napoleon when brought to power. Napoleon held this title following a military coup d'etat against the Directory, but soon became emperor of France in an elaborate ceremony at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in 1804
Toussaint L'Ouverture
joined the rebellion and quickly rose to command; he organized an army consisting mainly of illiterate slaves into a fighting force able to defeat trained European soldiers. This person led a rebellion of black slaves against the French on San Domingo, which was fueled by Enlightenment ideas of freedom and equality.
Code Napoleon
incorporated many principles of the REvolution, equality before the law, the right to choose one's profession, freedom of religion, protection of property right, etc. This term described the new legal system France adopted under Napoleon.
Bank of France
set up to protect the currency from inflation; this was controlled by the nations leading financers. This was one of the new institutions devised by Napoleon to control inflation and strenghten the French economy.
Grand Empire
comprised lands annexed to France, vassal states, and cowed allies. Napoleon was able to reach the reform to many of the countries part of this incorporation.
Trafalgar
the battle demonstrated British Naval Power; Napoleon was forced to postpone his invasion scheme indefinitely.
Continental System
Napoleon's plan to bar all countries under France's control from buying goods from Britain. This was the term for Napoleon's plan to defeat Britain through economic warfare. Napoleon devised this economic boycott of British goods because Napoleon had failed to defeat Britain by military means.
The Spanish Ulcer
drained Napoleon's treasurey, tied down French troops, inspired patriots in other lands to resist the French emperor. This phrase was a name given to the difficulties Napoleon encountered in the Peninsular War in which local peasant guerilla fighters, aided by the British, tied down French troops and cost Napoleon money.
The War of Liberation
anti-French feeling broke out in Germany; German Intellectuals called for this against Napoleon, and this also helped create a unified Germany. this refers to the battles between Napoleon and Frederick William III of Prussia in 1813, which drove Napoleon from Germany.
The Grand Army
one of the largest armies ever assembled; was under the control of Napoleon. This was the vast military force with which Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812. This refers to the 600,000 men thath Napoleon assembled to invade Russia, but they were forced to turn back in the face of severe winter conditions.
Elba
When allies captured Paris, Napoleon abdicated and was exiled here.
Waterloo
The British defeated Napoleon here in June; Napoleon's desperate gamble to regain power had failed.
Which of the following would NOT be considered a precondition for Napoleon's rise?
THE FRENCH INABILITY TO WAGE TOTAL WAR DURING THE REVOLUTION. What WOULD be a precondition: the growth of patriotism in France, the precedent of revolutionary change in France, and a sense of revolutionary exhaustion.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between Napoleon and the French Revolution?
He preserved some aspects of the Revolution while destroying others.
All of the following contributed to Napoleon's fall EXCEPT
HIS OWN CONSIDERABLE HUMILITY. What DOES contribute: the widespread resistance that developed in Germany, his failure to defeat the British, and Russia's retreating tactics in 1812
Napoleon exhibited all of the following personal characteristics EXCEPT
GENUINE CONCERN FOR OTHERS. He DID exhibit: impressive intelligence, a romantic urge for action, and a hero's personal magnetism
Which of the following statements best describes Napoleon's place in history?
He was a remarkable individual who took advantage of the situation in which he found himself.