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63 Cards in this Set

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Islam
"Submission"
Muhammad (570-632) “The Prophet”
 Prophet
 Born in Mecca
 Grew up as a Carrivan guide
 Married a woman who was rich
 Thought of religious things
 Had visions in his meditation
 Earthy knowledge is the spirit of Islam
 An angel tells him to “recite”
 Mecca becomes his hometown
Mecca & Ka’aba Stone
 Becomes Muhammad’s hometown
 Ka’aba Stone was said to absorb sin when touched, turning it from a beige to dark color
 Said it became dark due to the sins taken in
 Kicked out of Mecca, moves to Medina
Medina
 Completes a faith outline and converts many people with his following
Five Pillars of Faith
Creed
 There is only one God
 Muhammad is his last and greatest prophet
Five Pillars: Ritual Prayer
 Facing the direction of Mecca, bowing with forehead touching the ground
Five Pillars: Almsgiving
 The idea of sharing everything you have with everybody
Five Pillars: Fasting – Ramadan
 Celebrates Muhammad’s original visions
 Don’t eat during the day
 Eat at night, but only in moderation
Pilgrimage to Mecca (optional)
 An optional pillar, since it could become expensive
 Days long event that showed Muhammad’s visions
Jihad
 The concept of Holy War or spreading faith through the infidel
 Considered to be the last of the 6th pillar
Abu Bakr – “caliph”
 “Caliph” refers to a political / military leader (not a prophet)
 Helps spread tradition of religion
Sh’ite / Sunni split
 Sh’ites considered the more conservative of the two
 Don’t approve of Abu Bakr, because they believed the follower of Muhammad should have been his son.
 Cater to the traditional sides of life (in dress, life customs)
 Sunni considered the more liberal of the two
 Accept changes in custom
 Approve of the “caliph” idea and of Abu
Merovingians (500’s – 700’s)
 First of the royal families
 Thought to have been started by Clovis
 Considered the first ruler of the Franks
 Continue as French kings into 700s
 Didn’t do the real work as king
 The real responsibility fell on the king’s assistant(s)
“Mayor of the Palace”
 The real person in charge, making decisions
 Admin of the king’s household
 The King’s right hand man
Charles “the Hammer” Martel
 Duke of the Franks
 De facto ruler of Frankish Realms
Battle of Poitiers (Tours) 732
 Struggles between the Muslims & French that lasted in more than one battle
 Martel manages to stop the Muslims from invading, becomes a hero
 Given the name “The Hammer”
Jabal-al-Tarik
 Crossed the Muslims into Spain
 Helped establish the Strait of Gibraltar
Peppin (Pepin) “the Short”
 Charles Martel’s son
 Wants to become king instead of Mayor of the Palace
 Does a favor for the Pope, who takes away from the Merovingian’s blessings
 Crowned as King of the French
Carolingians – 751
 Dealt with Martel and his family
Charlemagne (768 – 814)
 Considered to be the greatest of the Carolingians
 Son of Peppin
 Given the name Charles the Great
Charlemagne: Military expansion – Spanish March, etc.
 Extends France’s borders into the north, east, and south
 Created the Spanish March (buffer territory between France and Spain)
Charlemagne: Political / administrative – “counts” and secretaries
 Divided the state into subdivisions and provinces
 Creates a bureacracy
 Appoints “counts” who are to be loyal to him
 Secret spies were made to make sure the counts did their job
Charlemagne: Education / culture – schools, Aachen, Einhard
 Created schools for his children
 Aachen becomes his new capital
 A dedicated servant and friend to Charlemagne, wrote his a biography for him (The Life of Charlemange)
Charlemagne: “Holy Roman Emperor” – Christmas, 800
 Crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas (December 25, 800)
 Considered a reward from the Pope
Louis “the Pious” (814 – 842)
 Son of Charlemagne
 Inherits the throne
 Looked at as a disappointment in following his father, and as a king
 Disinterested in politics
 At his death, he divided 3 chunks to his sons to inherit
Treaty of Verdun (843)
 Official paperwork that split the Roman Empire into 3 chunks
Lothair – Holy Roman Empire
 Given the central slice of the empire
 Crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Feudal System – definition
 With the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, it’s a replacement to a strong central government
Lord – vassal
 “Lord” refers to somebody who gives control of property
 “Vassals” are those who receive the property
Subinfeudation
 The passing down of responsibility, control, etc. to the vassals
Manor
 A farm
Serf
 A feudal farmer/commoner
“Feudal stool”
 Feudalism replaces the government
 Tells the people their role in the social / political ladder
Tracle revival – Italian cities
 Cities in Italty and trade towns
Burg, Burgher, Charter
 “Burghers” ran the trade cities/towns
 Often times were large traders
 “Charters” were a way to gain land from a king
Trade guilds
 Set up rules for trade
 Economic organizations of traders
 Traders had to join a guild to trade
Craft guilds
 Managed quality of goods
 Regulated prices
 Trained craftsman
Apprentice
 The starting point for a craftsman
Journeyman
 A day workman
 Begins to gain his craft
Master – Masterpiece
 Were prescribed products that the guild wanted them to make (a masterpiece)
Universities: Trivium
 Foundation of 1st degree
 Consisted of 3 courses
Universities: Quadrivium
 4 courses
Scholasticism
 The theme of the universities
 Looked at the past and acquired knowledge from there
Peter Abelard (1079 – 1142) Sic et Non
 A French scholastic philosopher who saw what people had to say in the past on certain subjects
 Known for his relationship with Heloise, where he was eventually castrated
Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) Summa Theologica
 An Italian philosopher and theologian and accessed the past views of God
Troubaclour poetry
 Popular piece of literature
 Dealt with Love as the primary message
Chanson de geste
heroic epic
Romanesque Architecture
 Architecture that reflected Rome
Gothic Architecture
Pointed arch
Stained glass
“Flying buttress”
Danelaw
 The collapse of feudalism
 Given to the Danish, used as part of England
King Canute of Denmark (1016)
 Took all the land
Edward the Confessor
 Died in 1066
Witan
 The council that selected the next kings
Harold Godwinson
 Chosen by the witan
 Was challenged and killed by William I in the Battle of Hastings
 The last of the crowned Anglo Saxon King of England
Battle of Hastings (1066)
 Battle between the Normans and the Anglo-Saxons, in which the Normans were victorious.
Domesday Book (1086)
 A census conducted by William I to see who owned land in order to tax them
 It was the law, and there was no appeal
Henry II (1154-1189)
 Got rid of tax farming
 Created the exchequer
Exchequer, Pipe Rolls
 “Exchequer” was in charge of management and collection of revenues
 Pipe rolls were the tax records collected
Writ, Jury, “common law,” etc.
 “Writ” was a legal order to do something. (Warrants, subpoenas, etc.)
Constitutions of Clarendon
 Legislative procedure by Henry II to legislate in areas where the Church was heavily predominant.
Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury
 Involved in a conflict with Henry II over the rights and privileges of the Church
 Threatened to be kicked out of the Church by the Pope at one point
 Assassinated by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral
John I (1199-1216)
 King of England that was not very well liked
 Forced to sign the Magna Carta by barons that turned against him
Magna Carta (1215)
 “The Great Charter”
 The most significant early influence on constitutional law today