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50 Cards in this Set

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Avignon
town on the southeastern french frontier where Clement set up temporary residence
pope boniface
-issues a formal declaration (bull)
-Unam sanctum: church is supreme over state and doesn't have to pay taxes
100 year war
-Edward III believed he could be in charge of territory and Philip IV disagrees. So he attacks agincourt, english win and are almost in control of all of northern france.
-Batte of Orleans- english army is destroyed
-French win 100 year war
Joan of Arc
-changes the course of 100 year war.
-illiterate peasant girl, 16 years old receives messages and visions by God
-receives a message that tells her to go to Charles and tell him that she has been sent to aid french people. goes into battle and leads french. becomes POW and english condemn her to be a witch and heretic. burned at stake
peasant revolts
revolted because they were angry over legislation that tied them to the land and imposed new taxes
crisis of the 14th century
crop failuresm famine, population decline, plagues, stagnating production, unemployment, warfare
conciliar movement
-movement within church, deemed to be heretical
-attempted to transform papal monarchy into a constituitonal system in which the pope's power would be regulated by a general council
great schism
-constant changing of popes
-pope martin is elected and the 3 other popes will step down. ends great schism
babylonian captivity
popes were all french and resided in avignon. not rome.
-pope gregory returns to rome and that ends babylonian captivity
King Philip IV
-attacked acquitane because he belived that edward should not have control over all teritory
council of constance
-pope martin is elected and the 3 other popes will step down. ends great schism
council of pisa
both popes are denounced and Pope Alexander the 5th is elected
marsiglio of padua
-"The defender of the peace", held that the state ran according to principles that had nothing to do with religous commands originateing a higher realm
john wycliffe
english, that argued that bible is final authority and should be written in vernacular
william ockham
natural reason could not prove God's existence, the souls immortality, or any other essential doctrine
Black death
bubonic plague, carried on fleas
renaissance
rebirth, starts in Ital 1350-1600
italian city states
external and internal instability
peace of lodi
italian city states agree that they will stop attacking eachother
secularism
referring to the world we live in as separate from any spiritual world; here and now; this life rather than the afterlife
humanism
based on ancient tets of greeks and romans-humans should always strive for excellence: arete-focus is on secular literature
petrarch
-emphasis in education should be onrhetoric and moral philosophy, wisdom combined with eloquence
machiavelli
father of political thought, wrote "the prince"-> have control of people and get more territory
condottieri
leader of mercenary troops of city states.
-unschooled in and owning no loyalty to the republican tradition-simply seized power during emergencies
johann gutenberg
inveented movable metal type to replace the cumberstone blocks
erasmus
"In praise of folly" studies brethren of the common life, biblical scholar known for secular views. believes man is essentially good and can progress. tries to make chrisitne doctrine more moral, rational, and humane
francois rabelais
essentail goodness of the individual and the right to be free to enjoy the world rather than being bound down, by fear of a vengeful God
sir thomas more
wrote "utopia"
-king henry wants him part of his court
-gets the title lord chancellor
-argues that man is not evil, society is due to uneven distribution of wealth. wears a hair shirt and sleeps on a plank of wood
leonardo da vinci
-mona lisa
-military weapons
-left 5000 pages of ntoes and drawings
Michelangelo
artist, sistine chapel
pope julius II
-warrior pope
-worked hard to restore and preserve the papal states and led military efforts to hold off france
Martin luther
-studies law
-almost struck by a bolt of lightning and cries for help and he believes at that moment he was touched by God. then becomes a monk. figures out that faith leads to salvation
-teaches at the university of erfort and wittenburg and promotes only the teaching of humanism
simony indulgence
purchase of a church office, serves his needs but not hte needs of his followers
-indulgence: people have to pay for their sins to be taken away.
-Albert archbishop of mainz
tetzel
-sells indulgences
ninety five theses
-written by MLK to challenge the notion of selling indulgences as a corrupt practice
predestination
God is all knowing and eternal and that his will is absolute. he gives faith to whomever he choses
frederick of saxony
prince that supported Martin luther
john calvin
spread religion throughout france. king declaires all protestants to be heretics. promotes rigid form of theocracy; calvinism
zwingli
transubstantiation- process in catholic church where througha miracle, the bread and wine represents jesus's blood and flesh. he dies in battle defending his religous beliefs
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
catherine de midici murdered the protestant guests at her wedding. over the next week, thousands of protestant were slaughtered
peace of augsburg
whoever the ruler is,l his religion needs to be followed
edict of nantes
first document in any nation state that attempted to institutionalize a degree of religious toleration
catherine de midici
has protestant guests of her son's wedding slaughtered
henry VIII
wassn't allowed to have an annulment of his marriage, so since he wanted a new wife, he removed the english church from papal jurisdiction
act of supremacy
established the english monarch as the head of the church in england
anabaptists
should be rebaptized for salvation
ignatius loyola
founder of jesuits, humanist, tries to reform the catholic church
jesuits
priests that devote themselves to teaching. known or teaching, preaching, and discipline. work directly with the pope. became an international movement.
council of trent
authority of catholic church are solidified. 7 sacraments remain. declares that church is final judge in biblical matters
catholic counter reformation
attempt to reform church. attacked many of the same abuses that martin luther spoke about. turned aggressive and hostile towards protestants. had policies of education, vigourous preaching, churc building, torture, persecution, and censorchip