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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
War of Spanish Succession
August II dies
two men competing for the throne:
dead king's son and Stanislas leszcynski
august III becomes kind and stanislas gets the dutchy of lorraine
england's right to provide slaves to spain's south america colonies. the english also allowed to send one ship a year to trade
Robert Jenkins
english smuggler those ear was cut off
when parliment found out they declared The War Of Jenkins Ear
Fought in the Carribean no body got the upper hand
Pragmatic Sanction
Charles VI of Austria wants his daughter to inherit the throne after he dies. Marie Theresa
War of the Austrian Succession
Fredrick "The Great" does not like the idea of Marie Theresa as the ruler of austria so Prussia attacks and takes Silesia from austria.
France and Prussia join together and England joins Austria they battle at Mollwitz. Austria secretly gives Silesia to Prussia
Colony War
England goes into Louisberg in Canada and takes it from france but france takes Madras from the english
becomes a stale war
Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle
treaty for the colony war
restored the status-quo
prussia keeps silesia
and the asiento was extended.
Dipolmatic Revolution
shift in alliances
the chancellor of austria
wants to ally with france
they first say no but then give in when prussia allies with england
Connections of Westminister
Prussia allies with England
Russia breaks it's alliance with England because Princess Elizabeth is very anti-Prussia.
France breaks its alliance with Prussia and joins with Austria
Battle of Mononganela
the english try to attack france in canada.
Braddock leads his army towards Fort Duquesne
France is allied with the Indians so they know the english are coming.
the indians take over after the french leader is killed and defeats the english
India War
English have Fort William in Calcutta
Nabob of Bengal amasses a huge army and Holwell the ranking officer surrenders the fort. the prisoners are put into the prison room
Black Hole of Calcutta
the 162 prisoners at Fort William are put into a holding cell that was only suppose to hold 4 or 5. it's said that only 23 people survived the night
Seven Years War
involved all major european powers
prussia & england vs.
austria, france, russia, saxony, & sweden
Fredrick and Prussia survives the seven years wars because
1. fredrick's military skills
2. his opponents weaknesses
3. the health of Emperor Elizabeth of Russia and her heir is Peter
death of Emperor Elizabeth of Russia.
turning point for the seven years war
Peter is the heir. when he becomes king russia completely changes side and is fighting with prussia.
the army isn't happy so his wife and the army have him killed. Katherine the great becomes ruler and gets russia completely out of the war
Treaty of Hubertusburg
stops the seven years war
returns all boundaries
prussia is recognized by austria as a power
French and Indian War
colonel war goes badly for england. france is winning everything. france takes the island of Ninorca in the Mederitterean.
William Pitt sends money to Fredrick & more troops to fight the french soon they start winning.
the english go back to fort duquesne they push out the french and rename it fort pitt
Plains of Abraham
(French and Indian War)
english defeat the french and they lose their hold in canada
in the carribean the french are pushed out
in europe the french forces are pushed back into france
their navies are both wipeouted by the english
treaty of paris of 1763
ends the colonial war.
in india french get back some out posts but are not allowed to maintain troops in benguo.
france looses all of canada & loses all land east of the missippi to england & all land west of the missippi to spain
loses everything in the carribean but 2 islands: Guadaloupe & Martinique
France has to get all troops out of the holy roman empire
they give back Ninorca
lose all land in africa

all the balance of power shifts to england
Outcome of seven years war
england - bigger winner
prussia - looks like a dominant power
austria - loser did not get back silesia
france - big loser
russia - winner shown that its a major power
American Revolution
the americans wonder why british soliders are still there. england needs money so they start taxing the colonies.
in saratoga the americans defeat the english
they english surrender in yorktown
treaty of paris of 1783
america gains it independence
france gains some territory back in the carribean and africa
spainish get florida & nanorca

france is bankrupted which leads to the french revolution
3 Paritions of Poland
1st: Russians are beating the turks and asks for Moldavia & Wallachia in the Peace Treaty
Fredrick of Prussia suggests taking a chuck of Poland
Poland loses one third its land and half its population

second: just russia and prussia go in and poland starts a national rebellion

third: prussia, russia, & austria attack poland and thats the end of poland
driven by reason, logic, science, progress
an attempt to understand & explain the world
big influence on American & French Revolution
Sir Issac Newton
studied optics, chemistry & maths
Principles of Natural Philosphy
three laws of motion
universe can be explained using math
don't need religion

two theories:
deism & rationality
god created the universe he sent it into motion. god doesn't get involve in the daily activies
god must be rational if you understand the way the universe works than you'd understand the way god is religion should be based on facts
men who started the enlightenment
concentrated on concrete ideas instead of abstract concerned with betterment of society
usually upper class
did not work in universities
spread ideas of letters, published works
salons (instituted by women of nobility or upper class)
Madame Geoffrin
famous for her salon
John Locke
1. Essay Concerning Human Understanding
examines nature of the human mind
when everyone is born - tabula rasa (blank slate)
education very important

2. Two Treatises Of Government
follows up on the ideas of the essay
everyone is born the same no one is better then anyone else
the only purpose of government is to defend life, liberty, & property
if the government fails its the right & duty of the people to get another ruler
Franswas Marie Arouet (voltaire)
wrote letters to katherine the great & fredrick the great
attacks existing conditions of church & government

1. Candide
shows all the imperfections of the world
calling for changes in society
he's biggest crusade - religious intolerance

2. Essay on the Manners & Spirits of Nations
history of the world
french - politics
1. Spitit of the Laws
argues that there is no one good system to govern
size & environment dicates the governshoip
should be a seperation of power & system of checks & balances
Adam Smith
Scottish - economics
1. Enquire into the Nature & Causes of the Wealth of Nations
argues that humans work best when they profit
strong government does not profit
advocates economis liberity (laissez faire)
Cesare Beccaria
Italian - justice
1. Essay of Crimes & Punishment
make punishment more humane & more effective
against torture & captial punishment
should use jail cells
innoccent until proven guilty

Three laws of justice:
1. punishment should prevent criminal from doing more wrongs to society & deter others from doing it
2. justice should be quick
3. prevention of crime is more likely accomplished with the certainty of punishment then severity
Mademe Pompadour
one of Louie XV mistresses
she had a lot of influence on his dealings with the ministers
Louie XVI
bankrupts france in the american revolution.
marries marie anoitte
Estates General
like parliment
composed of 3 groups:
clergy, noblity, & commoners

the commoners usually are the people from the middle class. they want change because they are the ones most affected.
The National Assembly
the commoners are fed up and form this assembly.
they claim it the new government
Tennis Court Oath
when the other two estates lock the national assembly out they find another building and take this oath.
it says that they will stay there until they have written a constitution for france
fall of the bastille
start of the french revolution.
one of the ministers is fired and the people are angered so they storm the bastille and kill the governor and put his head on a pike
Great Fear
rumors that armed thugs payed by nobles are going around killing the commoners so the commoners start burning nobles houses
New Rules by the National Assembly
serfdom abolished
clergy cannot collect tides
noblity has to give up privleges
taxation based on income
advancement in church, civil, & military post should be based on merit not status
Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizens
principles that guide the national assemly for the writing on the constitution
based on enlightenment materials
October Days
several thousand women storm the castle.
king & queen surrender to the crowd and are put in the tuileries palace
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
makes clergy civil officals
become elected officals
had to take an oath to the state
priest that do take the oath
constitutional clergy
non jurors
priests that do not take the oath
refractory priests
Flight to Varennes
the royal family try to escape france but someone sees the king and they are taken back to paris
political group
at first against war
most radical & well-organized
not happy with constitutional monarchy
wanted a republic
like the Jacobin
not quite as radical
they want a war
did want a constitutional monarchy
wanted war
"without pants"
paris mob. the peasants
noblity that had left france at the start of the revolution
french revolutionary war
france declares war on austria
the french do very poorly at first
the ally army invades france and begins to march on paris
brunswick issues the brunswick manifesto that states if anything happens to the royal family that ally army will take their revenge
battle of valmy
the french army doesn't back down to the ally army
the ally army gives up & turns around
the revolution is allowed to live
Rump Session
jacobins keep out the people who against them & order the arrest of the king
sans-culottes storm the palace and imprison the royal family.
they call for a new convention
on their first meeting they declare france a republic & abolish the monarchy.
louie is charged for treason and executed.
reign of terror
members of the convention think they knew whats best for france
committee of public safety executive powers 12 man committee
jacques danton & maximillion robespierre
sans-cullottes demand the arrests of the girondists
institute the levee en masse
levy on the whole country
military moblization
18-25 males were drafted
married men made & transported supplies
women made uniforms & worked in hospitals
kids made bandages
intense nationalism
national song
invented by anotonie louis
but dr. guillotin proposed its use
3 reasons:
equality, more humane, & more efficent
Vendee Revolt
nobles leading the revolt & peasants are the army
england finances the revolt
revolutionary army defeats them
Night of Thermidor
the convention people stand up to Robespierre
they demand his arrest & he is executed
the reign of terror comes to an end
thermidorian reaction
tribunal dispaned
committee of public safety stripped of power
Jacobins persecuted
White Terror
Jacobins are being terrorized
girondists are invited back into the convention
censorship lifted
sans-cullotte lose power
wealthy middle class gain power
convention starts on new constitution
constitutent of 1795
bicamera legislature
lower house - council of 500
upper house - council of elders
executive of france - directory
5 member body
council of 500 nomimates & council of elders choose who will be it
france's semi republic states
Batavian (netherlands)
Cisalpine (northern italy)
roman (terroritories around Rome)
Helvetic (switzerland)
Parthenopean (southern italy)