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242 Cards in this Set

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What two things is Rene Descartes known for?
1. Analytic Geometry
2. Proving you could be a person of both science and religion
What did Rene Descartes want to use to prove the existance of God?
Logic/clear thinking/reason
What book did Descartes write?
Meditations
What method did Descartes use?
Methodological doubt
What is Methodological doubt?
Using skepticism to find truth
What is skepticism?
Doubting the truth
What did Descartes want to find (what type of statements)
Undoubtedly true (about God)
Descartes said something is not undoubtedly true based not on "probablility" but on...
Possibility
What were Descartes' two theories of Methodological doubt?
1. Dream Theory
2. Evil Genius Theory
What was the one thing that Descartes left on his list of statements and what did it prove?
"I Think, therefore "I am."
What 2 things is Newton best known for?
1. Inventing Calculus
2. Laws of Gravity
What do the Laws of Gravity explain?
Why objects fall at the same rate of speed
What is the significance of the Scientific Revolution?
1. The discoveries that were made provided a foundation for other scientific discoveries
2. Rise of skepticism
3. Emphasis upon reason
4. Age of Reason/Englightenment
Intellectual Revolution =
Age of Reason
What was reason applied to?
1. social structure
2. political structure
What two books were written by John Locke?
1. Two Treatises on Civil Government
2. Essay on Human Understanding
What three rights did "Two Treatises on Civil Government" spell out?
1. Life
2. Liberty
3. Property
What did Locke say was the purpose of government?
To protect the rights of its citizens
What was Locke's conclusion in Two Treatises?
If the government fails to protect the rights of the citizens, they have the right to revolt
What theory was presented in Essay on Human Understanding?
Blank Slate Theory
What is the Blank Slate Theory?
At birth, we know nothing
What concept was presented in both of Locke's books?
Equality
According to Locke, how are we all the same?
1. We all have the same rights
2. We all begin with a blank slate
Locke said that if his ideas were true, it's unreasonable to do what?
Treat people unequally
What country was the center of the enlightenment?
France
WHo wrote "Philosophical Letters on the English"?
Voltaire
What did Voltaire write?
Philosophical Letters on the English
What did Philosophical Letters of the English say?
The structure of the English government is more reasonable than the structure of the French government
What is a Philosophe?
Writer of the enlightenment
What is the famous quote by Voltaire?
"I might disagree with everything you say, but I would defend to the death your right to say it."
What did Jean Jacques Rousseau write?
The Social Contract
Who wrote The Social Contract and what did it say?
Jean Jacques Rousseau
The only legitimate government is the one that is chosen by the people
What is Denis Diderot known for?
The first Encyclopedia
who wrote "Encyclopedia"?
Denis Dederot
What did "Encyclopedia" emphasize?
Folly of social/political structure
WHo wrote "THe SPirit of Laws"
Charles Montesquieu
What did the Spirit of the Laws point out?
How to avoid tyranny
What is tyranny?
Putting too much political power into too few hands
WHat were Montesquieu's solutions to avoid tyranny?
1. Create a speration of power
2. Create a system of checks and balances
What brances did Montesquieu reccomend?
1. Judicial
2. Executive
3. Legislative
What are checks?
Limitations
What are the causes of the French Revolution?
1. Enlightenment
2. Inspiration from America
3. Glorious Revolution
4. Hunger
5. Political Structure
6. Social Structure
7. Taxes
8. Debt
Why was the Englightenment part of the Fr. Revolution?
Taught people to be dissatisfied witht he political and social structures
WHat two things from America inspired the Fr. Rev?
1. "Republic" government was created
2. Popular sovereignty
What is a republic?
A government without a monarch
What is popular sovereignty?
political powers in the hands of the people
What caused hunger in the late 1700s?
1. Series of crop failures
2. Cost of living had gone up
What was the political structure and who was the king at the beginning of the Fr. Rev.?
Absolute monarch, Louis XVI
What was the Social Structure of France at the beginning of the revolution?
Three estates
1. first estate: Clergy and the church itself
2. second estate: Nobility
3. third estate: Everyone else, 3 groups
What were the three groups of the third estate?
1. Bourgeoisie (Business men)
2. Peasants (small farmers)
3. Urban laborers (city workers)
How many people were in the first estate?
about 150,000, less than 1%
Who owned 10% of the land in France?
Catholic church
How did the C. Church have so much wealth?
1. Tithes
2. Renting their land
What was the taxing of the first estate?
tax exempt
Who was in the second estate?
Nobility
Officers
How many people were in the second estate?
350,000, about 1.5%
What was the tax state of the second estate?
Tax exempt
Where did the second estate get their wealth?
1. Rented the land
2. Recieved payment from the peasants
Who could become clergy and mililtary officers?
Members of nobility
How much land did the Bourgeoisie own?
20%
How many people were the peasants?
80%
HOw much land did the peasants own?
35%
What did French kings do to pay off debt?
Increase taxes
WHy didn't raising taxes work to pay off debt?
Less money went to the economy
What's the keyword that describes the people during the french revolution?
Dis-satisfaction
From what family was Louis XVI?
Bourbon family
Who was Louis XVI's wife?
Marie Antoinette
Why was Louis intimidated by Marie Antoinette?
1. She was beautiful (can't trust a beautiful woman)
2. From Austria
3. Never been around any girls his age
Why was it intimidating that Marie was from Austria?
Austria and France were enemies
Who was Marie A. the daughter of?
Maria Theresa, the Empress of Austria
Why as Marie Antoinette very hated?
1. She was "different" - not like normal queens
2. She was from Austria (not trusted)
3. Her sexuality
What shocking announcement did Louis make at the beginning of the Fr. Rev?
Reconvene the Estates General
What did people assume when Louis reconvened the Estates General?
He may be willing to share power
Where did the Estates General reconvene?
Palace of Versailles
What did the King say the Estates General should bring to the meeting?
a cahier
What is a cahier?
Listing of complaints
What were the three representing groups in the Estates General?
1. First estate - clergy
2. Second estate - nobility
3. Third estate - peasants
What did the third estate say in the E.G. complaint?
The political structure and social structure weren't fair
What did Louis tell the re-convened E.G?
"We have an economic crisis. Fix it."
What was the third estate's plan to solve the economic crisis?
Tax all three estates
What was the 1st and 2nd estates' plan to solve the crisis?
Raise taxes for the 3rd estate
What did the 3rd estate form?
National Assembly
Who joined the National Assembly first?
First estate
why did the first estate join the NA?
Donations were coming from the 3rd estate
WHere did the NA have to meet after they were kicked out of their room in the palace?
A tennis court in the palace
What did Jean Joseph Mounier reccomend the assmbly should do?
Swear an oath that they wouldn't disband until they had created a new constitution for France
Who reccomended that the N.A. should swear an oath that they wouldn't disband until they had created a new constitution for France?
Jean Joseph Monier
What Oath said that NA wouldn't disband until the creation of a constitution?
Tennis Court Oath
What 2 things does a constituion do?
1. Gives rights
2. Limits powers
Why didn't Louis send force to the NA to make them quit?
1. He knew how popular they were with the French government
2. There may be mutiny in the military
Why may there be mutiny in the military if the king sent force on the NA?
Officers were of the second estate, soldiers were of the third estate
WHat did Louis XVI finally order for the second estate to do?
Join the NA
What two things caused a huge upset in the French people?
1. Louis XVI fired Necker
2. There was a rumor that the king would send troups into Paris
Who was Necker?
Minister of Finance
Why was Necker loved by the people?
He was the "champion of the people"
Who encouraged the Storming of the Bastille?
Camille Demoulins
What was Demoulins' occupation>?
Journalist
Where was Demoulins eating lunch when he gave his speech?
Cafe Foy in Paris
What was the Bastille?
1. Armory
2. Prison
What is an Armory?
Place where weapons are stored
What did people think was in the prison of Bastille?
Hundreds of prisoners, arrested for protesting
Who was the defender of the Bastille?
Commander DeLaunay
Who won the Storming of the Bastille?
The people
What 2 things did the people find in the Bastille?
1. Weapons
2. Six prisoners
What was unfortunate about finding weapons in the Bastille?
The king never did march men into Paris
What document was created by the NA?
"Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen"
What did "Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen" say?
1. People have equal rights
2. People have the right to participate in making of laws
3. There will be religious freedom
4. Freedomo of speech
5. Freedom of the press
What did the King think about the "Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen"?
He rejected it
Why were the people angry at the King about the "Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen"?
1. He rejected it
2. He threw a huge party
Why were the people angry about the King's party?
Shortage of food
What was Jean Paul Marat's occupation?
Journalist
What paper did Jean Paul Marat write for?
The Friend of the People
Who wrote "The Friend of the People"
Jean Paul Marat
What was the logic of Jean Paul Marat?
Maybe the the king doesn't know people are starving, let's bring him to Paris
What is the event of 10,000 people marching to Versailles and bringing the king to Paris called?
The Capturing of the King
Where did the royal family move to in Paris?
Tuileries
What did the king announce after he was brought to Tuileries?
He'd accept the Declaration of rights
What document did the National Assembly create about the clergy?
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
What four points were in the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
1. Most land owned by the Catholic Church would be confiscated and sold to pay debt
2. Clergy members would be appointed by the governmente
3. Clergy would be elected by the people
4. Clergy had to swear an oath of layalty to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
What happened to the clergy who refused to abide by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
They were fired
What was the name of the constitution of the Legislative Assembly?
Constitution of 1791
What was the name of the new government under the Constitution of 1791?
Legislative assembly
What two basic institutions would share power under the Legislative Assembly?
1. King
2. Legislative Assembly
What two powers did the King have under the Legislative assembly?
1. Veto legislation
2. Foreign policy
What powers did the L.A. have under the L.A.?
1. War
2. Taxes
What was Louis XVI's response to the Legislative Assembly?
He grudgingly agreed
What is the name of the event when Louis escaped the Tuileries?
The Flight
That the King knew, who hated the revolution?
1. Nobility
2. Clergy
What was the king going to do after leaving Tuileries?
Rally suppport and spend money hiring mercenaries to go to Paris and stop the revolution
What would the King do to the supporters of the revolution?
Kill them
Why couldn't Louis leave the Tuileries?
The carriage broke an axel
What did people think happened after the King was brought back and the new government started?
The revolution was over, problems solved without bloodshed
What 2 countries especially feared the ideas of the revolution would spreadc?
1. Austria
2. Prussia
What is Prussia?
Part of current-day Germany
Why did France declare war on Austria and Prussia?
They were convinced that A and P would declare war on them
What declaration was "proof" that Louis was a traitor?
Brunswick Manifesto
What did the Brunswick Manifesto say?
If the King or Queen is harmed in any way, Paris will be destroyed
What did the people demand from the Legislative Assembly?
Do something to the King
Legislative Assembly voted to do what do the King?
Arrest and suspend him
What took place after arresting and suspending the King?
A series of executions
Who completed a series of executions?
George Danton
Who was George Danton?
Prosecuter for the City Government of Paris
What was the city government of Paris?
The Commune
What was the name of what happened when Danton feared people would rise up to save the King?
September Massacre
Who did Danton think would try to save the King?
1. Nobility
2. Clergy
What new assembly was set up to create a new government?
National Convention
What disbanded with the National Convention?
Legislative Assembly
Why did the Legislative Assembly disband?
Had been elected to share power
What were the National Convention's problems?
1. No government
2. WHat to do with the King
3. War - two other powers
What was the National Convention's solution to the Government the first time?
It would be a temporary government until they created a permanent government
What was the National Convention's solution to the King problem?
Trial for reason, found guilty, executed on the guillotin
What was the alliance between several countries called?
First Coalition
What countries were in the First Coalition?
1. Austria
2. Prussia
3. Great Britain
4. Spain
5. Netherlands
What party was the NC originally?
Jacobin Party
What two parties did the Jacobin Party split into?
1. Girondin
2. Mountain
Who completed a series of executions?
George Danton
Who was George Danton?
Prosecuter for the City Government of Paris
What was the city government of Paris?
The Commune
What was the name of what happened when Danton feared people would rise up to save the King?
September Massacre
Who did Danton think would try to save the King?
1. Nobility
2. Clergy
What new assembly was set up to create a new government?
National Convention
What disbanded with the National Convention?
Legislative Assembly
Why did the Legislative Assembly disband?
Had been elected to share power
What were the National Convention's problems?
1. No government
2. WHat to do with the King
3. War - two other powers
What was the National Convention's solution to the Government the first time?
It would be a temporary government until they created a permanent government
What was the National Convention's solution to the King problem?
Trial for reason, found guilty, executed on the guillotin
What was the alliance between several countries called?
First Coalition
What countries were in the First Coalition?
1. Austria
2. Prussia
3. Great Britain
4. Spain
5. Netherlands
What party was the NC originally?
Jacobin Party
What two parties did the Jacobin Party split into?
1. Girondin
2. Mountain
Who were the Gerondin?
Representatives of rural France
Who were the Mountain?
Urban representatives
Where did the Gerondin and the Mountain fight each other?
Streets of Paris
Who was defeated in the streets of paris?
Gerondin
What happened to the surviving members of the Gerondin?
They were executed
WHat committee did the National Convention create?
Committee for Public Safety
What sort of power did the Committee for Public Safety have?
Total, abosolute power (temporarily)
WHat is the time during the governing of the CFPS called?
Reign of Terror
Who was in the CFPS?
1. Jean Paul Marat
2. Camille Desmoulins
3. George Danton
4. Maximilian Robespierre
What would the CFPS do?
Execute anyone considered an "enemy of the revolution"
What did one have to do to be an enemy of the revolution?
Criticize anything that had happened during the revolution
What was France's explination for not being defeated?
Elán/Spirit
What is Elán?
Spirit
What do the French still look back on based on "elan"?
"Spirit of 1793"
Why was Marie Antoinette's execution controversial?
Most say she was guilty of treason, but really she was tried for child abuse
Where was Marie A. kept?
Conciergerie in Paris
What happened to the letter Marie A. wrote to her children?
It was not delivered
What did the National Convention do about the CFPS and why?
Did away with it, executed the members, because they were worried the people would kill them
What were the three names of the "permanent" government greated by the National Convention after the Reign of Terror?
Constitution of The Directory
Constitution of 1795
Constitution of Year Three
What was the name of the new government after the Reign of Terror?
The Directory
What sort of government was The Directory?
Republic
What were the tree parts of The Directory?
1. 5 Directors
2. Council of Ancients
3. Council of 500
With whom would the five directors share political power?
a bi-cameral legislature
What happened after the Directory was put in place?
Immediate rebellion
Who attempted to overthrow the Directory>
Royalists
What did The Directory do to try to save itself?
Called in the military
Who were the two military leaders that saved The Directory?
1. Paul Barras
2. Napolean Bonaparte
What happened to Barras and Bonaparte after they saved The Directory?
Became national heroes
What is the Era of Napolean called?
Napoleonic Era
Where was Napolean born?
Island of Corsica
Where is the Island of Corsica?
Off the coast of Italy
Who governed Corisca?
France
What type of school did Napoleon attend?
Military school
Why was Napoleon picked on?
1. He was short
2. He spoke French with an Italian accent
What did Napoleon do in his spare time?
Read
What sort of books did Napoleon read?
1. History
2. Military
What happened in Napoleon's late teens?
He emerged as leader
What two qualities of leadership did Napoleon have?
1. Charisma
2. Intensity
What famous chemist was executed by the CFPS?
Antoine Lavoisier
What Battle made Napoleon famous?
Battle of Toulon
What is Toulon?
A seaport on the Mediterranean
Who had captured Toulon?
Great Britain
What did Napoleon do in the battle of Toulon?
Re-took Toulon
Why was Napoleon able to rise quickly through the ranks?
1/3 of the military officers quit during the revolution
What was the famous quote by Napoleon?
"When I see an empty throne, it makes me want to sit upon it"
Where was the Battle of the Nile fought?
Egypt
Who was the Battle of the Nile between?
France and Great Britain
Who lead the British in the Battle of the Nile?
Horatio Nelson
Who won the Battle of the Nile?
The British, but Napoleon said he did
What ended the revolution?
Napoleon overthrew The Directory
Why were the people happy that Napoleon overthre The Directory?
1. Government was very corrupt
2. Loved Napoleon
What were the names of Napoleon's constitution?
Constitution of 1799
Constitution of The Consulate
What was the name of Napoleon's government?
The Consulate
What was the first name Napoleon gave himself?
First Consul
What did Napoleon "re-name" himself?
Emperor
What sort over governer was Napoleon?
Dicatator
What was the famous quote by Napoleon?
"When I see an empty throne, it makes me want to sit upon it"
Where was the Battle of the Nile fought?
Egypt
Who was the Battle of the Nile between?
France and Great Britain
Who lead the British in the Battle of the Nile?
Horatio Nelson
Who won the Battle of the Nile?
The British, but Napoleon said he did
What ended the revolution?
Napoleon overthrew The Directory
Why were the people happy that Napoleon overthre The Directory?
1. Government was very corrupt
2. Loved Napoleon
What were the names of Napoleon's constitution?
Constitution of 1799
Constitution of The Consulate
What was the name of Napoleon's government?
The Consulate
What was the first name Napoleon gave himself?
First Consul
What did Napoleon "re-name" himself?
Emperor
What sort over governer was Napoleon?
Dicatator
Why did René Descartes decide to prove that God exists?
There was tension between science and religion, and he wanted to show that you can be involved in both.
What are the tools of science?
logic/clear thinking/reason
What did René Descartes say that we need to do?
Challege everything we think we know.
What are the two parts of the Intellectual Revolution?
1) The Scientiful Revolution
2) The Age of Reason