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137 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 requirements of civilization?
1. People live in an urban settled environment
2. Farming
3. Occupational specialization - (first to break out were leaders (political and religious)
4. Writing
What are the 4 requirements of civilization?
1. People live in an urban settled environment
2. Farming
3. Occupational specialization - (first to break out were leaders (political and religious)
4. Writing
What does the name Mesopotamia mean?
Land between the rivers
Think about the location of Mesopotamia.
On what modern Country is Mesopotamia located?
Iraq
War torn middle eastern country.
Between what two geographical Landmarks did civilization begin?
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Rivers
Who settled in Mesopotamia around 3000 BC and was said to be the first group to meet all four requirements of civilization?
The Sumerians
Begins with an S.
What was the source of the arugments between the different Sumerian City states?
Material's necessary to survive. i.e. water and land.
Who attempted to unite the Sumerians around 2340 BC and created a mostly military empire with no emotional or devotional unity amongst its citizens?
Sargon of Akkad
What is the Empire that Sargon created known as?
The first Sumerian Empire
Who reigned the Sumerians from 1792-1750 and triend to unite them on an emotional level?
Hammurabi
famous for his law code
Under Hammurabi who was decreed the supreme God?
Marduk
Under Hammurabi's law code, punishment depended on the class of who?
the victim
victim or criminal?
What is the form of writing that the Sumerians used by making wedge shaped impresions in clay and then baking it.
cuneiform
What are the Sumerian religious centers that are reminiscent of pyramids called?
Ziggurats
What is the moral of the Epic of Gilgamesh?
That immortality is only for the gods.
Where was the best farmland in the ancient world located?
The Nile Delta.
What did the reliabilty and predicitibility of the nile give to the Egyptians
A feeling of Security.
What is the name of the area located geographically south of the Nile Delta?
Upper Egypt
What is then name of the area located on the Nile Delta?
Lower Egypt
What was the name given to the fertile land covered with silt?
Black Land
Dark
What did the Egyptians refer to the desert as?
Red Land
as opposed to Black Land
During what period of Egyptian History did recognition of Pahraoh's begin?
Old Kingdom
What was the capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom
Memphis
city in tennessee
Who was considered by some to be the first pharaoh?
Menes
what are the small, individually governed subdivisions of Egypt known as?
nomes
What was the leader of a nome known as?
Nomarch
What was an advisor or assistant to the pharaoh known as?
Vizier
what is the concept that egyptians lived by, embracing truth, justice, order, and harmony known as?
Ma'at
During which period of Egyptian history did patterns for art, achitecture and culture develop?
The Old Kingdom
Which periods of Egyptian History were charicterized by internal confusion, power shifted from pharaoh (unbalanced washing machine),
outside invasion,
ends with a return to normal
the intermediate periods
Which period of Egyptian history lasted from 2055 BC to 1650 BC and was characterized by change?
The Middle Kingdom
During the middle kingdom the capital city changed from Memphis to where?
Thebes
during the middle kingdom the capital city of EGypt changed from Memphis to what
thebes
during the middle kingdom the pharaoh took on a new role as the _______ of his people
shepard
during the middle kingdom the pharaoh became responsible for what?
public works and welfare
What is the name of the Egyptian god who became the judge of the dead?
Osiris
Who was the wife of Osiris
Isis
What was the test used to judge egyptians at death
the heart was placed on one side of a scale and a feather on the other...to pass the heart had to be lighter than a feather
what are the two qualifications that an egyptian must meet to have life after death
1. must be mummified
2. must pass the test
what is the charactizing word used to describe the new kingdom
empire
which kingom of egypt was characterized by a larger state with new people caused by great immigration into egypt?
New Kingdom
during which kingdom of egypt did the state become a military power?
new kingdom
during which kingdom of egypt did slavery become a problem
new kingdom
who created mass relgious confusion during the new kingdom after he changed the relationship betwen the gods and the pharaoh?
Amenhutep IV
what is the hebrew term that refers to the delta of egypt?
goshen
what term is used to describe the time when the hebrews left bondage in egpt and wandered the desert for 40 years
exodus
who was the first king of the israelites from 1020-1000BC
Saul
who succeeded saul as king of the israelites, defeated the philistines, and established control over palestine?
David
who was david's son, and did even more than his father to strengthen the royal power in israel
Solomon
what is Solomon's best known project and what is now kept there?
the temple of jerusulum - - - the ark of the covenant
under which israelite king was the state at the height of its power?
Solomon
After Solomon's death Israel split into what to seperate kingdoms?
Israel and Judah
Which kingdom of the newly split israel state was in the south, contained two tribes, and had jerusulum as its capital?
Judah
Israel was destroyed by which nation?
Assyria
Judah managed to remain indepent but was forced to pay tribute to which nation?
Assyria
in the 6th century israelites came to terms with what new religious idea?
monotheism
israelites believed that they were in a covenant with their god and if they obeyed him in return they would receive?
the promised land
These people were considered to be amongst the greatest sea traders of their time
Phonecians
What was Tyre
a major sea port of the phoenicians
The phonecians developed what that later influenced the smae thing in many other cultures
an alphabet and the principles of phonics
what people first appeared around 1360 BC
The Assyrians
who was one of the rulers underwhich the empire really got going around (114-1076)
Tiglath-Pilesar
what was the capital of assyria?
ninevah
what new tactic did the assyrian military develop as a tool?
terror
what development gave assyrian military weapons an edge
metal
what type of warfare did assyrians employ in the mountains
geurrilla
who was Cyrus the first the leader of?
The persians
What modern country did the persian empire lay on
Iran
The Persians were one of the first to use what in their military power
a cavalry
the persian empire was broken down into subdivisions called _______
satrapies
The persians were able to devlop their communication abilities by developing an network of what
roads
the religion of the persians
Zoroastrianism
the holy book of Zoroastrianism
zend avesta
The supreme diety in Zoroastrianism
Ahuramazda
the evil diety in zoroastrianism
ahriman
How many times did the greeks build their civilization before it lasted
3
where did the first beginning of the greek civilization take place
crete
what is knossus
a city on the northern shore of crete were the greek palace was located. lasted from 2000-1450 BC
who is arthur evans and what is he known for
an archeologist - first to investigate the greeks
who were the minoans
the greeks that lived on the island of crete
who were they mycenaens
the peoples that revived the greek civilization after its first decline. they were traders
what is the basis for the modern stories of the trojan war?
the mycenaens sailed to the city of illium battled and overtook the city.1250BC
what age of greek history took place from 1100-750 BC
the dark ages
what period in egyptian history took place from 2686-2125BC
old kingdom
what period of egyptian history took place from 2055-1650BC
middle kingdom
what period of egyptian history took place from 1550-1070BC
new kingdom
who showed up during the dark ages of grecian history
dorians
what were the first great epic poems of ancient greece
homer's the illiad and the odessy
what period of grecian history took place from 750-500BC
the archaic age
what is a polis
the greek version of a city state
what is an acropolis
the high point of a city state where temples and religious buildings stood
what is an agora
a market in a city state
what is a phalanx
the rectangular formation the greek armies went to battle in
why was colonization important during the archaic age
the greeks believed that anything good that happened happened because you were part of a city state
what was the worst form of punishment considered to be during the archaic age
ostricism
what are the five forms of greek government
monarchy, despotism, oligarchy, tyrann, democracy
what is a monarchy
ruled by one
what is despotism
an absolute and autocratic ruler
who were the two main greek city states
sparta and athens
where was sparta located
in southern peloponisis in an area called lacoina
what was sparta's basic problem
they were landlocked
who did the spartans take over in 730 BC and why
the messenians - they wanted their unused farm land
who is given credit for reforming sparta into the intensely military power it bacame
lycurgas
what did life in sparta center around
the military
what form of government did athens begin with
oligarchy
who was solon
a famous athenian oligarch who solved the major debt problems in athens
how did solon deal with the question of citizen ship
he came up with a multi level definition of citizenship
what is despotism
an absolute and autocratic ruler
who were the two main greek city states
sparta and athens
where was sparta located
in southern peloponisis in an area called lacoina
what was sparta's basic problem
they were landlocked
who did the spartans take over in 730 BC and why
the messenians - they wanted their unused farm land
who is given credit for reforming sparta into the intensely military power it bacame
lycurgas
what did life in sparta center around
the military
what form of government did athens begin with
oligarchy
who was solon
a famous athenian oligarch who solved the major debt problems in athens
how did solon deal with the question of citizen ship
he came up with a multi level definition of citizenship based on class
who seized power in athens in 560BC and made himself a tyrant
pisistratus
what did cleisthenes inroduce to greece
democracy
what was the greek deomocratic system like
only citizens of a certain class could take part in the decision making process...and instead of voting for representatives to make decisions on the issues they voted on the issues themselves at assembly. the chariment was the leader of the assembly and it was his job to see that the decisions of the group were carried out.
what period of grecian history took place from 500-338 BC
the classical age
what was happening for most of the grecian classical age
they were at war
what started in 449BC and ended in 479BC
The persian wars
what were the persian wars actually
a series of clashes between the greeks and persians that took place over a twenty year span
why did the persians fight the greeks
they wanted to spread their territory into the ionian or northern city states of greece
what happened at the battle of marathon
the persians tried to cut of the athenian support of greece in 490 BC...the greeks won and messengers were sent to tell the news of victory running 26 miles which is were we get the distance for a modern marathon
what happened at the battle of thermopylae
occurred in 480 BC most of the warrior were spartans but the greeks were greatly outnumbered...one of the spartan soldiers turned traitor and showed the persians a back way into the city. the persians looted and torced the city the greeks lost...it was the last battle of the persian war
who was the chairman of athens during the end of the persian war and what promise did he maker
periclies - he said that athens would rebuild and be better than before because it would be made out of marble instead of wood
what was the delian leauge
a system set up by the greeks and run by the athenians in which all the city states would send money every year to build up a strong military power with which the greeks could fight the persians
what was the peloponeisan war and what led to it
it was a civil war in greece with athens and her supporters on one side and sparta and hers on the other. it started over disputes caused by the delian leauge lasted from 460-404 BC
what made it harder for Athens to fight in the peloponesian wars
1/3 of their population died in a plauge
who won the pelopnisian wars
sparta
what happened to sparta a in 395 BC a few years after the peloponisan wars
they fought in the corinthian wars and were defeated
who was herodotus
a greek historian who wrote an account of the persian wars which isn't taken extremely seriously because he added accounts of the gods actions in the war
who was thucydides
a greek historian who wrote an account of the persian wars that is taken more seriously than that of herodotus
where did the gods live
olympus
what does the word philosophy mean
love of wisdom