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62 Cards in this Set

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Abduction
moving a body segment (an arm or a leg) away from the center of the body (such as raising one's arms from side to shoulder height
Adduction
Bringing the body segment back to the center of the body (such as bringing arms back to one's side from an abducted position
Aerobic
Exercise which requires a great deal of air (oxygen). Such activities as running or swimming more than 40 seconds are generally in the aerobic category. As the activity progresses, more blood fats and blood sugar (glucose) are used.
Agonist
Muscle that contracts concentrically, such as the biceps in a curl
Anabolic Steroids:
Hormones used to promote muscle growth. Not recommended, often illegal
Aerobics
A type of cardiovascular exercise. The term is usually associated with a tpe of aeobic dance routine.
Anaerobic
Exercise that is completed quickly. Such contractions do not require the presence of oxygen. Lifting heavy weights or running a 100 meter dash are both in the anaerobic category. The fuel for anaerobic activity comes from fuels already in the muscle fibers, not from fats and sugar in the blood
Antagonist
Muscle opposite agonist, such as the triceps in a biceps curl
Barbell
A long steel bar on which weights are attached for two-handed, large muscle exercises
Bulk/hypertrophy
Increased size of muscle fibers, CT's, and "fuel stores"
Cam
device used in some weight training machines that aids the lifter in working the muscle to its maximum throughout the contraction.
Cardiovascular
Means "heart-blood" but includes the action of the lungs
Cardiovascular Endurance
body's ability to transport oxgen. It is a reflection of the size and efficiency of the heart, the number of blood vessels carrying oxygen to the muscles, the amount of red blood cellsthat actually carry the oxygen, and the ability of the muscles to absorb oxygen and utilize it in energy production
Clean and Jerk
an Olympic lift in which the bar is brought to chest height in one move, the clean, and then brought above the head in a second move, the jerk
Collars
Metal devices thtat slide over the end dof the bar and hold the weights in place
Concentric Contraction
Occurs when the muscles are shortening
Curl
An action in which only the elbow or knee joint is moved. It can be a biceps or leg curl
Cuts
Term used to define muscle definition in a body builder
Depression
Downward movement of the shoulders
Dorsi Flexion
Bringing the top of the foot closer to the front of the leg. This action stretches the achilles tendon
dumbbell
short bars generally used for one-arm exercises
eccentric contraction
occurs when a muscle continues to resist as it lengthens
electrolytes
substances absorbed in solution, capable of conducting electric charge. The electrolytes potassium, calcium, and magnesium, for example, are essential for nerve and muscle function
Elevation
Moving the shoulders upward
Ergogenic
energy producing. Foods and other products that increase energy or speed recovery from fatigue are argogenic aids
Eversion
turning the sole of foot outward
Extension
Increasing the angle of a joint (such as letting bar down to hips from chest in bicep curl)
Flexion
Decreasing the angle of a joint
(such as letting the bar down to the hips from the chest in a bicep curl
Hyperextension
bringing a body part past the normal extension position (a back arch is an example)
Hypertrophy
occurs when the individual muscle fibers increase in size
Incline-Decline Boards
Padded boards that can be set at an angle so that the weight trainer can work different aspects of muscles than those worked in a standing/lying position
Intensity
Avg. weight lifted per repetition. It can be seen as the quality of work done in a workout
Isokinetic
means "same energy" or "same speed." Refers to exercises performed at a constant rate of speed while force is exerted against a machine.
Isometric
means "same length"
The muscle contraction does not change the joint angle
Isotonic
Means "same tone." Any exercise w/ free weights
Inversion
Turning the toe inward
Load
Volume x Intensity, or total # of pounds lifted in a workout
Muscular Endurance
Refers to how many contractions a muscle can make without tiring. So it is the ability of the muscle to produce constant force for a long period of time. Ex- running, swimming
Nautilus
type of weight machine with special cams that allow amount of force needed to lift the weight so that the muscle can be kept working close to maximum throughout the exercise
Negative Exercise
Eccentric (muscle lengthening) exercise in which the weight is lowered under control to a starting position
Periodization
Changing the long-term workout schedule into shorter cycles (periods) during a year
Plantar flexion
pushing the toes away from body
plyometrics
a rebounding exercise in which the muscle goes immediately from an eccentric to a concentric contraction. Useful in developing power and speed
Power
Combination of strength and speed
Press
an action in which the weight is pushed away from the body using the triceps, shoulder, chest, or leg muscles
Prone
Lying face down
repetition
one complete cycle of an exercise
rotation
moving a body part around its long axis
Set
Number of repetitions performed without resting.
Snatch
Olympic lift in which the weight is lifted from the floor to an overhead position in one movement
Static Contraction
A muscle contraction in which the joint doesn't move. Ex- isometrics
Supine
lying face up
Target Heart rate
The pulse rate desired by an individual to achieve an effective cardiovascular workout. Popular method is to take 65 to 85 percent of the number that results from subtracting your age from 220.
Universal Machines
The first weight machine in which thcavity due to the face weights were on slides and were selected by keys
Valsalva Effect
Increase in the pressure inside the chest cavity due to the fact that the glottis is closed, the breath is held, and the muscles around the chest are contracted. The increased pressure can raise the blood pressure inside the chest significantly
Volume
quantity of work done. Total # of repetitions done in a workout
Static Contraction
A muscle contraction in which the joint doesn't move. Ex- isometrics
Supine
lying face up
Target Heart rate
The pulse rate desired by an individual to achieve an effective cardiovascular workout. Popular method is to take 65 to 85 percent of the number that results from subtracting your age from 220.
Universal Machines
The first weight machine in which thcavity due to the face weights were on slides and were selected by keys
Valsalva Effect
Increase in the pressure inside the chest cavity due to the fact that the glottis is closed, the breath is held, and the muscles around the chest are contracted. The increased pressure can raise the blood pressure inside the cheset significantly
Volume
quantity of work done. Total # of repetitions done in a workout