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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is polydipsia
excessive thirst
normal sodium value
135-145
normal chloride
96-106
normal bicarbonate hc03
20-30
normal potassium
3.5-5.5
normal phospate
2.8-4.5
normal magnesium
1.5-2.5
normal calcium
4.5-5.5
normal protein
6-8g
clinical manifestations of hyponatremia with (normal or increased ecf volume)
headache
weakness
confusion
nausea
vomiting
weight gain
bp up
cvp up

muscle spasm
seizures
coma
clinical manifestations of hyponatremia with (decreased ecf volume sodium loss)
confusion
irritabilty
postural hypotension
tachcardia
rapid thready pulse
dry mucous membrane
weight loss
tremors
seizure
coma
clinical manifestations of hypernatremia with (normal or increased ecf volume)
intense thirst
restlessness, agitation, twitching
seizures
coma
flushed skin
weight gain
peripheral and pulmonary edema
bp up
cvp up
clinical manifestations of hypernatremia with (decreased ecf volume (water loss)
intense thirst
dry swollen tongue
restlessness agitation twitching
seizures
coma
potural hyptension
cvp down
weight loss
if hyponatremia is caused by water excess what care is needed
usually just fluid restrictions
if severe symtoms of hypnatremia such as seizures develp what care is needed
small amounts of hypertonic saline solution 3%nacl
what is given if rapid volume replacement is needed
isotonic sodium chloride .9%
in fluid volume excess the pulse is
full and bounding
in fluid excess the -------- hard to obliterate
pulse
in fluid vlume excess you have --------- blood pressure
increased
increased fluid volume excess causes what to happen in the neck
jugular venous distension
in mild to moderate fluid volume deficit what happens to the heart rate
goes up
a change in position with someone with fluid volume deficit ma cause
orthostatic hypotension
severe untreated fluid volume deficit can result in
shock
severe fluid volume deficit can cause a ------- ------ pulse that is ------- to obliterate and ------- neck veins
weak
thready
easy
flat
what are some respiratory signs in fluid volume excess
shortness of breath
irritative cough
moist crackles on ausculation
what are some respiratory signs in fluid volume deficit
increased respiratory rate
hypoxia
the patient with a nasogastric tube should not drink water because
it will increase the loss of electolytes
most common causes of hyperkalemia
renal failure
massive cell destruction
regular levels of potassium
3-5-5.5
clinical manifestations of hypokalemia
hyperglycemia
fatigue
soft, flabby muscles
polyuria
weak, irregular pulse
decreased reflexes
nausea vomiting
muscle weakness
clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia
irritability
anxiety
adominal cramping
diarrhea
weakness of lower extremeties
paresthesias
irregular pulse
cardiac standstill
to treat hyperkalemia you can use an ion-exchange resin such as
sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate)