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31 Cards in this Set

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Chlamydia
Most frequently reported infectious disease in the US; Major cause of female sterility

S&S- silent STD, often has no symptoms, thick vaginal & penal discharge, burning sensation, itching, abdominal pain

ETI- chlamydia trachomatis, bacteria

Dx- swab cultures

Tx- azithromycin, erythromycin, doxycycline
Gonorrhea
Infection of the GI tract

S&S- purulent discharge, dysuria, up to 50% of men are asymptomatic, can lead to PID, septicemia, septic arthritis

ETI- bacterium Neisseria Gonorrhoeae

Dx- cultures, gram stain

Tx- ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, doxycycline
Trichomoniasis
protozoal infection of the lower GI tract, 15% of people who are sexually active have trichomoniasis

S&S- dysuria, itching, women may notice a profuse greenish yellow odorous discharge, men may notice a whitish discharge from the penis

ETI- protozoal infection caused by trichomonas vaginalis

Dx- wet preparation

Tx- flagyl
Genital Herpes
Infection of the skin of the genital area

S&S- recurrant, incurable viral disease, blisterlike lesionsare noted somewhere on the genitals or around the anus, flu symptoms, dysuria

ETI- HSV-1, HSV-2

Dx- physical exam, antigen test, tissue culture

Tx- no cure, prescription drugs are available to reduce the duration & frequency of outbreaks, acyclovir, valacyclovir
UTI, Cystitis, Urethritis
Inflammation of the urinary bladder & urethra are two common forms of lower UTI

S&S- urgency, frequency, possibly incontinence, pain in the pelvic region & low back, fever

ETI- ascending bacterial invasion of the urinary tract. The most common causative microorganism is E. coli

Dx- clean-catch UA, urine culture, cystoscopy

Tx- amoxicillin, septra, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, pyridium
Neurogenic Bladder
Dysfunction of urinary bladder control that consists of difficulty in e,ptying the bladder or urinary incontinence

S&S- decreased volume of urinary stream, urinary retention, not able to control voiding pattern, persistently incontinent of small amounts of urine

ETI- insult to the brain, spinal cord, or the nerves, trauma or disease

Dx- uroflowmeter, cystometry

Tx- ditropan, detrol LA
Stress Incontinence
uncontrollable leakage of small amounts of urine

S&S-leakage of urine on coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting, running

ETI- weakening of the pelvic floor muscles & the urethral structure, trauma to the area resulting from childbirth, obesity

Dx- patient hx, cystourethrogram

Tx- kegel exercise, estrogen cream
Wilm's Tumor
Malignant neoplasm of the kidney that affects children younger than 5 years. It is the most common kidney tumor of childhood.
Chronic Renal Failure
Results from the gradual & progressive loss of nephrons

S&S- weak, lethargic, hypertension, edema

ETI- primary diseases, infections of the kidney

Dx- blood studies, UA, 24-hour urine, KUB x-ray, kidney scan, IV pyelogram

Tx- dialysis, kidney transplant
Pyelonephritis
Most common type of renal disease, is an inflammation of the renal pelvis & connective tissue of one or both kidneys.

S&S- fever, chills, N/V, flank (lumbar) pain, foul odor to urine, hematuria, pyuria

ETI- bacteria

Dx- clean-catch UA, blood culture, urine culture

Tx- septra, cefixime, levofloxacin
Renal Calculi
Stones in the kidney or elsewhere in the urinary tract formed by the concentration of various mineral salts.

S&S- severe pain in the flank area, urgency, N/V, hematuria, fever chills, abdominal distention

ETI- unknown, excessive amount of calcium or uric acid present in the blood

Dx- UA, KUB x-ray, IV pyelogram

Tx- analgesic therapy, fluid hydration, surgery, lithotripsy (ESWL), diuretics
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Slowly progressive & irreversible disorder in which normal renal tissue is replaced with multiple grape like cysts. Renal failure.

S&S- lumbar pain, abdominal pain, hematuria, hypertension, can lead to kidney failure

ETI- inherited

Dx- UA, abdominal CT scans, abdominal MRIs, IV pyelogram

Tx- dialysis, kidney transplant
Acute Glomerulonephritis
Inflammation & swelling of the glomeruli of the kidneys.

S&S- proteinuria, edema, decreased urine volume, hematuria, HTN, HA

ETI- follows an infection caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, idipathic

Dx- abnormal UA, blood tests, KUB x-ray

Tx- antihypertensives, diuretics, antibiotics, protein & salt & fluid intake reduced
Chronic Glomerulonephritis
Sloely progressive, noninfectious disease that can lead to irreversible renal damage & renal failure.

S&S- asymptomatic, hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, oliguria, edema, azotemia

ETI- immune mechanisms

Dx- UA, blood tests, radiographic studies, ultrasonography, renal biopsy

Tx- antihypertensives, diuretics, antibiotics, protein & salt & fluid intake reduced, may require dialysis
Nephrotic Syndrome (Nephrosis)
encompasses a group of symptoms sometimes referred to as the protein-losing kidney.

S&S- proteinuria, loss of appetite, puffy around eyes, pitting edema

ETI- result of exposure to certain toxins & drugs, pregnancy, kidney transplant, metabolic disease, infection, allergic reaction

Dx- proteinuria, 24-hour urine specimen, abnormal blood test, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, renal biopsy

Tx- sodium intake lowered, corticosteroids, diuretics
Acute Renal Failure
A sudden & severe reduction in renal function.

S&S- oliguria, GI disturbances, HA, drowsiness

ETI- diminished blood flow to the kidney, nephrotoxic

Dx- blood tests, UA, kidney scan, ultrasonogram, IV pyelogram

Tx- remove toxicity, limit NA & K intake, antihypertensives, diuretics
Breast Cancer
This cancer is 100 times more common in women than men.

S&S- lump, swelling, tenderness of the breast; dimpling of the breast, ulceration or the retraction of the nipple

ETI- risk factors: family hx, over 50, never pregnant or pregnant after 35, early menarche or menopause after 50

Dx- mammogram, lump biopsy

Tx- lumpectomy, mastectomy, radiation/chemo
Eclampsia
When a seizure occurs in a pregnant patient with preeclampsia.

S&S- extreme HTN induced grand mal seizure, confusion, disorentation

ETI- unknown

Dx- hx of preeclampsia

Tx- magnesium sulfate, delivery of the infant
Genital Warts
One of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world.

S&S- contagious cauliflower-like growths in the genital area

ETI- human papillomavirus (HPV), can lead to many cancers, namely cervical

Dx- visual

Tx- antiviral cream, cryosurgery
Syphilis
Chronic, systemic, sexually transmitted infection that consists of four stages.

S&S- begins with the presence of a painless but highly contagious local lesion called a chancre

ETI- T. pallidum spirochete

Dx- culture of lesion

Tx- penicillin G, doxycycline
Endometriosis
Chronic condition characterized by extrauterine endometrial tissue

S&S- dysmenorrhea, painful intercourse, painful defecation, infertility

ETI- unknown

Dx- pelvic exam, ultrasound, laparoscopy

Tx- danazol
PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)
infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding tissue.

S&S- foul-smelling vaginal discharge, painful, tender abdomen, complications include pelvic adhesions, ectopic pregnancy, peritonitis, & septicemia. Main cause of infertility.

ETI- initial infection usually started by an STD, usually chlamydia

Dx- pelvic exam, cervical culture, ultrasound

Tx- antibiotics
Cervical Cancer
Biggest risk factor developing this cancer is lack of regular PAP smears (this is a preventable cancer).

S&S- watery, bloody, or purulent vaginal discharge that may be heavy & foul smelling, & bleeding betweem menstrual periods, after intercourse, or after menopause

ETI- HPV DNA is detected in more than 90% of invasive cervical cancers

Dx- pap smear, colposcopy, cystoscopy

Tx- loop electrsurgical excision procedure (LEEP), hysterectomy, radiation/chemo
Ovarian Cancer
Accounts for more deaths than any other gynecologic malignancy.

S&S- constipation, lower back pain, irregular menstrual cycles, urinary frequency, dyspareunia, ascites

ETI- unknown

Dx- pelvic exam, transvaginal ultrasound, serum tumor markers

Tx- surgical removal, hysterectomy, radiographic testing
Ectopic Pregnancy
Fertilized ovum implants & grows outside the endometrial canal.

S&S- positive pregnancy test, pelvic pain, cramping of the uterus with or without bleeding

ETI- unknown, pelvic adhesions, damaged fallopian tubes, previous pelvic infection

Dx- ultrasound, serum hCG

Tx- laparoscopic surgery
Preeclampsia
Serious disease of pregnancy charcterized by hypertension & proteinuria.

S&S- weight gain, edema, HTN, protein in the urine

ETI- unknown

Dx- blood pressure, UA

Tx- magnesium sulfate, delivery of the infant
Placenta Previa
When the placenta covers the opening to the cervix.

S&S- painless, bright vaginal bleeding, usually in the first or second trimester

ETI- low implantation of the ovum in the uterine cavity

Dx- pelvic ultrasonogram

Tx- exercise & intercourse are avoided, c-section @ 36 weeks
BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia)
Difficulty in starting urination, a weak stream of urine, or inability to empty the bladder completly. Urinary frequency, including nocturia
Prostatitis
Acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.

S&S- burning sensation during urination, low back pain, urinary frequency with urgency, hematuria

ETI- bacterial or nonbacterial, more common in men over 50

Dx- UA, white blood cell count (WBC)

Tx- levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ABX
Prostate Cancer
Common cancer, it grows so slowly that only 3% of men with prostate cancer will die from it.

S&S- asmptomatic, urinary obstruction

ETI- age, heredity, lifestyle, more common in older men & rarely occurs before age 45

Dx- PSA level, DRE, biopsy

Tx- radiation/chemo, surgery, premarin, prempro
Testicular Cancer
One of the most curable solid neoplasms

S&S- painless swelling of one testicle

ETI- most common in males between the ages of 20 & 35, cryptorchidism (undescended testicle)

Dx- physical exam

Tx- chemo, surgery