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30 Cards in this Set

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HT
BP> 140/90 mmHg
HT
multifactorial disease
What are the risk factors for HT ?
smoking,diet,weight,stress
What is the basis of the treatment for HT ?
Goal is to achieve BP < 140/90 or <130/80 diabetes and kidney disease- lifestyle modifications.
How do diuretics work?
Increase Na+Cl- excretion and secondary H2O excretion-decreasing blood volume.(decrease Na+ and Cl- reabsorption initially)
What is hydrochlorothiazide?
Diuretic
What is furosemide?
Diuretic
What is triamterene?
Diuretic
What is spironolactone?
Diuretic.
What needs to be ensure with admin. of thiazide diuretics?
K+ supplements
How do thiazide diuretics work?
They act on distal convoluted tubule and inhibit Na+/Cl- co-transporter.
Name 2 adverse effects of thiazide diuretics.
1. K+ loss from collecting ducts
2. Increased plasma uric acid due to inhibition of tubular secretion of uric acid-gout.
Thiazide diuretics can cause hyperglycemia and allergic rns.
True.
What are the "-olol" ?
Beta-blockers
Name some B-adrenoceptor antagonists.
Propanolo,atenolol,timolol.
What is the mechanism of B-adrenoceptor antagonists?
1.Reduce CO,thus decreasing rate and contractility,hence BP.
2. Reduce renin release,decreasing Ang. and thus decreasing vasoconstriction.
State the type of B-adrenoceptors found in the heart.
B-1.
What is meant by the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of B-adrenoceptors antagonists?
Partial agonist activity.
B-adrenoceptor antagonists are lipid soluble.
True.
When do you get effects from B-adren. antagonists ?
3-4 weeks after intake.
Why do B-adren. antagonists cause dreams and insomnia?
CNS effects due to lipid solubility.
Why is B-adrenoceptors antagonists contraindicated in asthma?
They cause bronchoconstriction by blocking B2 adrenoceptors in airway SM.
How does someone get cold extremities from B-adren. antagonists?
Decreased CO leads to reflex alpha-1 adrenoceptor constriction.
What happens when glc goes down in diabetics?
HR goes up.
Why is fatigue an adverse effect of B-adrenoceptor antagonists?
1. B1 blockade reduced cardiac response(decreased CO)
2. B2 blockade constriction of skeletal muscle blood vessels.
B-adren. antagonists are contraindicated in diabetics.
True
What are the considerations for Beta blockers?
Asthma,diabetes and heart failure.
Name some selective B1 blockers.
Atenolol and metoprolol.
Name some non-selective B1 and B2 blockers.
Propanolol and timolol.
What is the preferred B-blocker for heart and kidney?
B1 selective blockers.