Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell surface receptors
membrane impermeable mol
hydrophilic/large
intracellular receptors
membrane permeable mol
small/hydrophobic
steroid/thyroid family signaling molecules:
cortisol
estradiol
testosterone
thyroxine
steroid/thyroid signaling: mechanism?
hphobic - pass through plasma membrane
bind to receptor in cytosol or nucleus
response to cortisol?
increase: BP, BG, glycogen stores, gluconeogenisis enzyme
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
rec X linked
mutation in test. receptor
look female but XY
second messenger
intracellular signal synthesized in response to initial signal
ex. cyclic GMP
sildenafil (viagra)
act as comp inhibitor to PDE5
keeps cyclig GMP signal around
more vasodilation
PDE5
phosphodiesterase
degrades cGMP
decreases vasodilation
nitroglycerin
NO synthase activation
increase NO, vasodilation
signal relay
spread signal through cell
signal amplify
send signal out to many
signal integrate
recieve signals from more than one pathway and combine to one
signal distribute
send signal to more than one pathway
create branches
complex response
protein kinase
phosphorylates
protein phosphatase
dephosphorylation
excitory ion channels
+
inhibitory ion channels
-
acetylcholine
stimulates flux of cations into cell
membrane depolarization/muscle contraction
G-protein: subunits?
alpha/gamma tethered to p membrane
beta linked to gamma
G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR): part I
nucleotide EXCHANGE of GDP for GTP on alpha subunit
-activate alpha and beta/gamma subunits
GPCR: part 2
-GTPase inactivates beta/gamma
-GTPase activity of alpha subunit
Gs
Gi
Gq
s - activates adenylyl cyclase; activates Ca2 channels
i - inhibits adenylyl cyclase
q - activates phospholipase
Protein Kinase A (PKA)
activated by cyclic AMP (secondary messenger)
-result: activates transcription regulator
phospholipase C (PLC)
-secondary messengers: inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol
-result: open IP3 gated Ca release channel of ER
Calmodulin
-binder of Ca; change Ca levels in cells = calmodulin activated
enzyme-linked receptors: convey signal how?
-receptor tyrosine kinase (cross-phosphorylation)
-recruit tyrosine kinase
receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK): activated?
-signal molecule bonds
-phosphorylated tyrosines bond
-activated intracellular signaling proteins bound to phos. tyro.
Ras activating protein: what does it do?
-increases rate of Ras-mediated GTP hydrolysis
Ras protein
GTPases
-membrane assoc.
MAP kinase
-downstream of Ras
-serine-threonine cascade
-Mitogen activated protein kinase
-on scaffolding pro
MAP kinase: signaling targets?
transcription factors
MAP kinase signaling module
stimulus -> MAPKKK -> MAPKK -> MAPK -> biological response
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase)
-generates PI(3,4,5)P3
-PI(3,4,5,)P3 forms docking station at p membrane
-AKT binds/activated/released = signaling node
AKT kinase
-signals cells survival/cell proliferation
-serine/threonine specific kinase
-activated: phosphorylates Bad
mTOR
-mammalian target for rapamycin
-rapamycin inhibits response of B/T cells
-rapamycin inhibits mTOR
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)
-generated by PI3 kinase
inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)
-generated by PLC
-releases Ca from ER - > activates protein kinase C
PTEN
-PI(3,4,5)P3 back to PI(4,5)P2
-tumor suppressor
JAK
-Janus kinases
-recruit to activated receptor; cross phosphorylate
STAT
-bind, phosphorylated
-activated dimerize, translocate to nucleus = transcription factors
Smad proteins
-Smad prot activated by phosphorylation
-Smad go to nucleus and = transc factors
TGF-beta
-variant of receptor serine/threonine kinase
-critical neg regulator cell proliferation
-commonly disrupted in cancer
Imatinib (Gleevac/Novartis)
-anti-neoplastics
-specific to tyrosine kinase
-tmt for CML
-Imatinib comp inhib for TK
Trastuzmab/Herceptin
-monoclonal abody
-bind to HER2 receptor in breast cells
-prevents activation