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61 Cards in this Set

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Acute Pain
severe pain with a rapid onset and of short duration
less than six months
Addiction
compulsive physiological need for a habit-forming drug
Bioavailability
the extent to which a dose of a drug reaches its site of action to produce an effect
Chronic pain
pain that persists beyond the period of healing, ceases to serve a protective function, degrades client function, and serves no adaptive purposes
Cutaneous Stimulation
a stimulation of the skin
Distraction
a pain reduction tecnique that diverts an individual's attention away from the pain sensation
drug tolerance
decreased physiological response after repeated administration of a drug or a chemically related substance
effleurage
a type of massage stroke that glides without manipulation depp muscles, smoothes and extends muscles, increases nutrient absorption, and improves lymphatic and venous circulation
epidural
administration of local anesthetic by way of a catheter inot the epidural space of the spinal column. designed to produce anesthesia of the pelvic, abdominal, or genital areas
friction
effect of rubbing, or the resistance that a moving body meets from the surface on which it moves, a force that occurs in the direction oppose movement; in massage, technique in which deeper tissues are stroked or rubbed, usually through strong circular movements of the hand
guided imagery
technique in which client focuses on an image, becoming less aware of pain
intraspinal
pertaining to both the epidural and intrathecal routes of medication administration
intrathecal
of or pertaining to a structure, process, or substance within a sheath, as within the spinal cord
massage
form of cutaneous stimulation that involves the application of touch and movement to muscles, tendons, and ligaments
nonopoids
analgesics that do not contain opoids
nonpharmacologica
interventions used to prevent illness and promote health without the use of or addition to the use of medications
opoids
pertaining to natural and synthetic chemicals that have opium like effects although they are not derived from opium
pain intensity
the degree or extent of pain perceived by an individual
pain rating scale
graphic or numeric representations that allow clients to quantify their pain experience
patient controlled analgesia
PCA
tech that allows clients to self administer small, continous doses of IV or subcutaneous opiods as the feel they need
Petrissage
a massage technique in which the skin is gently lifted and squeezed
Pharmacological agents
oral, parenteral, or topical substances used to alleviate symptoms and treat or control illness
physical dependence
a physiological state in which abrupt cessation of a drug results in a withdrawal syndrome
preemptive analgesia
a method of preventing pain while reducing opiod use
pseudoaddiction
exhibition of drug-seeking behaviors through the true driving factor is pain relief not physical addiction
relaxation
a cognitive strategy that provides mental and physical pain relief or reduces pain
splinting
supporting the abdomen is used to reduce pain caused by coughing or sneezing after surgery
antipyrectic
pertaining to a substance, such as a medication, that reduces fever
clean technique
the purposeful prevention of the transmission of microorganisms by using procedures such as hand washing and disinfection fo equipment to reduce the number of microorganisms
dementia
a term used to describe a group of symptoms related to a loss or impairment of mental powers. These symptoms appear in a person who is awake and are demonstrated by syptoms of mental confusion, memory loss, disorientation, intellectual impairment, or similar problems
febrile
pertaining to or characterized by fever or elevation in body temp
Gastrostomy feeding tube
long, hollow, flexible tube inserted into the stomach through a stab wound in the upper left abdominal quadrant
High fowlers position
placement of a client in a semisitting position by raising the head of the bed more than 45-60 degrees
infusion pump
device designed to deliver a measured amount of fluid over a period to time
intake and output record
measuring and recording of all liquid intake and output over a 24 hour period of time
nasal cannula
a device used for delivering oxygen by way of two small, short tubes that are inserted into the nares
nasogastric feeding tube
a small tube that is passed via the nares into the stomach
over the counter drugs
drug available to a consumer without a prescribtion
oxygen therapy
administration of oxygen by any route to a client, to prevent or relieve hypoxia
piloerection
erection of hair due to the action of the arrectores pilorum muscles, the smooth muscles attached to the hair follicles; commonly referred to as goose bumps
prn
abbreviation for pro re nata. a latin phrase meaning as needed. the times of administration are determined by the needs of the client
transtracheal oxygen catheter
a method of administering oxygen to a client by establishing a low flow catheter route directly in the trachea
debridement
removal of dead tissue in a wound
erythema
redness or imflammation of the skin or mucous membranes, result of dilation and congestion of superficial cappilaries
eschar
scab or dry crust that results from excoriation of the skin
exudate
any fluid that has been extruded from a tissue or its capillaries, more specifically because of injury or inflammation. It is characteristically high in protein and white blood cells
ischemia
a decrease supply of oxygenated blood to a body organ or part
maceration
skin that becomes abnormally soft and breaks down because of prolonged exposure to moisture
necrosis
localized tissue death
pressure ulcer
a lesion that develops in the skin as a result of prolonged, unrelieved pressure
reactive hyperemia
the return of blood to an area of tissue upon the release of externally applied pressure
risk assessment tool
evaluation protocols for assessing the likelihood for th development of pressure ulcers; two such protocols are the Braden scale and the Norton scale, which assess the following five risk factors; physical condition, mental state, activity, mobility, and incontinence
shear
pressure exerted against the surface and layers of the skin as tissues slide underneath the body as it moves against a surface
slough
necrotic (dead) tissue in the process of separating from viable portions of the body
topical agents
pertaining to a drug or treatment applied to the surface part of the body
undermining
condition of a wound in which the loss of underlying tissues is greater than the loss of the skin
binder
bandage made of a large piece of material to fit and support a specific body part
chronic venous insuffiency
abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of the venous blood from the legs to the trunk of the body
elastic bandage
bandage of elasticized fabric that provides support and allows movement
exoriation
and injury to the surface of the skin or other part of the body caused by scratching of abrasion
maceration
skin that becomes abnormally soft and breaks down because of prolonged exposure to moisture