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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phatogenicity is the concept of
Microorganisms causing disease.
What is invasion?
Adherence and multiplication,colonisation,evasion of host defences.
What facilitates invasion?
When soluble and cell associated materials that damage host.
What happens in some chronic infections like CF?
Host defences damage tissue due to chronic inflammation
Biofilm oocurs when
low lactoferrin + defective innate immunity impedes antibiotics(vancomycin,tobramycin) reaching bacteria.
What type of vaccinations do you have?
-Heat killed whole pathogen
-Live attenuated pathogen
( adjuvant and route of admin. v.important)
What are the characteristics of a useful vaccine?
-Sustained protection
-Induces neutralising Ab
-Induces protective T cells
What does selective toxicity of antibiotics imply?
Toxicity to pathogen > toxicity to host.
How does resistance to antibiotics occur?
-Spontaneous mutation
-Plasmid mediated.
Why are antimicrobials more toxic to pathogen than host?
-Accumulation of agent in pathogen.
-Specific action on cellular structure specific to pathogen(cellwall)
-Selective action on biochem process more critical to pathogen than host(eg folate synthesis)
-local action(topical)
Low pH at site of infection may interfere with antibiotics.
Foreign bodies divert immune defenses and hence greatly increase risk of persistent infection.
Allergy to antibiotics is relatively rare.
False.Common and may cause fatal anaphylaxis.
Does antibiotics cause intense selection pressure in favour of resistant mutants?
Yes.(+ mutation rate for most bacteria is 10-8 and mutations can arise in 15 min)
Culture based typing of pathogens is very slow.
Combination of drugs used to
Prevent and circumvent resistance.