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25 Cards in this Set

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What can disrupt A/C membrane?
-temp/humidification levels
-infectious agents
-organic and inorganic dusts
-gases
How is upper a/w condition for protection?
-Inspired air filtered by nasal hairs & turbulent airflow.
-Impaction of larger particles(10microm) on mucus membrane.
What happens to air en route through conducting a/w?
It is warmed to 37 degrees & saturated with water vapour to prevent dessication of gas exchange area.
What triggers exercise-induced bronchospasm?
Increase in exposure to dry air in conducting a/w with hypertonic fluid at epithelial surface activating inflammation & mediator release.
Where are goblet cells found?
Epithelium.
Where do you find mucus glands?
submucosa
What constitutes mucus?
High molecular weight mucin glycoproteins encoded by at least 8 genes
What removes mucus-impacted material?
Mucociliary escalator-sweeps mucus to the epiglottis at rate of 1-2 cm/min.
What kind of particles settle in gas exchange region by diffusion?
Smaller particles of 1-5 micro-m.(flushed away by pulm. circ. into syst. circ.)
Where does the mucus sit?
On top of the rapidly beating cilia that are surrounded by a less viscous solution(sol)
What happens with increase in viscosity of periciliary soln?
Decrease beat freq. and delay clearance of mucus.
Name factors which decrease ciliary beat freq.
Air pollutants,tobacco,smoke,local and general anesthetics,bacterial products,viral infections.
What would cause uncoupling of cilia from mucus?
Excessive fluid secretion
What would cause slowing of beat due to resistance of viscous surrounds?
Insufficient fluid secretion.
What are the roles of surfactant proteins A & D found in mucus?
Antibacterial-opsonin like activity.
What is the role of complement components found in mucus?
Opsonise and exert direct toxicity on bacteria.
What will iron-binding pz such as lactoferrin/transferrin in mucus do?
Bind iron to inhibit bacterial growth.
What are defensins?
Salt-sensitive antimicrobial peptides.(secreted by epithelium by neutrophils)
What is the function of anitproteases found mucus?(levels increased by IL-1 & TNFaplha)
Screen to prevent indiscriminant proteolysis by proteases released by neutrophils.
Name some antioxidants found in mucus.
Glutathione,vitamin E,catalase,superoxide dismutase(SOD) reduce toxicity of O2- and OH.
Name a few diseases where mucus accumulates.
Asthma,CF,chronic bronchitis,COPD.
What happens when mucus accumulates?
Forced expiration and cough ----> generate high airflow rates.
-if mucus too thick or too runny,NOT expectorated.
What can N-acetylcysteine do to mucus?
Sulphydryl agent that disrupt S-S bonds in mucus and loosen mucus plugs.
What is the function of cough?
Removes obstruction from large a/w + removes mucus from a/w.
Describe cough.
Large inspiration and explosive expiration v/s narrowed a/w and a closed UA----> sufficient airflow velocity to remove firmly lodged material.