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36 Cards in this Set

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neurons can be described as ______, _______, and _________. What do those terms mean?
Excitable: respond to stimuli
Conductive: transmit nerve impulses
Secretory: release chemical messangers
Efferent nerves
motor nerves. Send impulses to skeletal muscles (somatic motor). In PNS exit through the ventral root (spinal chord0
Afferent nerves
Sensory nerves. Receive impulses from sense receptors within the body. Enter through the dorsal root and have body's in dorsal root ganglia.
Interneurons
Connect neuron to neuron. Most numerous in body.
Transport that carries information back to the cell body from the periphery (up the axon)
Retrograde transport
Multipolar neuron
Most common. Many dendrites, one axon. Most motor neurons.
Bipolar neuron
Unusual. Only 1 dendrite that arises from the pole opposite the axon. Smell, sight, balance
Pseudo-unipolar neuron
Sensory ganglia. Pain and pressure. Single axon which branches to send 1 process toward CNS and 1 to the periphery.
Define "glial cell" and list the major glial cells in the nervous system
Specialized supporting cells.
CNS: Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, PNS:
Schwann cells, satellite cells.
Ependymal cells
CNS. Line ventricles, sometimes secrete cerebrospinal fluid.
Gaps between neighboring myelin sheathes on an axon
Rodes of Ranvier
Embryonic origin of somatic portion of body
Outer body wall of embryo, includes skin, muscle, limbs.
Embryonic origin of visceral portion of body
Tube of endoderm. Gives rise to glands, organs, smooth muscle
Cell body
Perikaryon
Axon hillock
Where axon leaves cell body
Terminal boutons
Terminals at the end of an axon.
Basic neurotransmitter of the NS
acetylcholine
Astrocyte
"Star." Glial cell of CNS. Mainly in gray matter, has long branched processes. Mediate metabolic activity btw neurons and regulate intercellular environment of CNS. Linked by gap junctions. Helps form blood brain barrier. Some processes surround capillaries. (restricts what can enter brain)
Type of junction linking astrocytes
Gap junctions
Oligodendrocytes
Oligo --> "few." Glial of CNS. Myelenate axons. Can myelenate multiple axons (unlike Schwann cells).
Microglia
Scavengers, remove debris after death or injury. bone marrow derived macrophages. Phagocytic.
Schwann cells
PNS. Surrounds axons, resulting in non-myelinated or myelinated nerves. Can only myelinate part of an axon.
non-myelinated nerve fibers.
Axons become engulfed by cytoplasm of Schwann cell or oligodendrocyte. Gray matter, ganglia in PNS
Myelinated nerve fibers
Nerve is WRAPPED in Schwann cell or oligodendrocyte. More insulated and conduction is faster. White matter.
Gray matter of CNS
Neuron cell bodies, dentrites axons, glial cells and blood vessels
White matter of CNS
myelinated axons and glial cells. Provides routes (nerve tracts) that connect parts of brain
Nerve tracts
axons going to the same place
Laminae (in brain)
Layers which make up the cortex
# of cranial nerves
12 pairs
#of spinal nerves
31 pairs
2 types of ganglia
sensory (cranial/spinal) and autonomic
Sensory nerves have what form
pseudo-unipolar.
Where are the cell bodies of motor neurons found?
Ventral horn
Where are the cell bodies of the sensory neurons found?
Dorsal root ganglion.
Histologically, how can a spinal ganglion be recognized?
nice nucleolus surrounded by smaller glial cells (satellite cells).
Describe the structure of peripheral nerves
Similar to muscle, with endoneurium, perineurim, and epineurium surrounding. (axon --> Schwann cell --> endoneurium)