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29 Cards in this Set

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What is myasthenia gravis?
Autoimmune disease in which individual makes antibodies against acetylcholine in the muscle cell
What are cardiomyopathies
loss of cardiac muscle function. Often fatal
TMD
tempromandibular joint disfunction
myoepithelial cell
glands (eg. exocrine, salivary). Can generate motile forces through contraction
pericytes
small contractile cells before a cappillary bed. Create motile forces
myofibroblasts
in charge of wound contraction
Characteristics of Skeletal muscle
Striated, voluntary control, capable of some regeneration due to satellite stem cells dividing. Made from fusion of embryonic muscle cells. Multinucleated
Characteristics of Smooth Muscle
No striation, involuntary control. Cells can divide. No neuromuscular junctions. Relies on diffusion of neurotransmitter across a gap. As a result contraction is slow and easily maintained
Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle
Striated, branching. Usually 1 nucleus. Involuntary. Cannot regenerate. Contain intercaculated discs
prime mover
performs main action
antagonist
produces opposite movement of prime mover
Muscle fascia
Epimysium. Surrounds entire muscle. Connected to tendon
perimysium
Surrounds fascicles (muscle bundles). Connected to epimyosin
endomysium
Surrounds muscle fibers. Connected to perimysium
motor unit
group of muscle fibers innervated by same motor neuron
myofibrils
microfilaments of actin and myosin. Make up muscle fibre. Give muscle its striated appearance
sarcomere
contractile unit of muscle cell
actin is attached to ______
Z line
______ moves toward ________ during contraction
Actin; A band
"Triad"
Sandwich of t-tubules between 2 terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
T-tubules
invagination of plasma membrane, spreads depolarization
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Stores and releases Calcium. Surrounds muscle fibers. Includes terminal cisternae.
Mitochondria are located where in skeletal muscle
within the I bands, arranged regularly
Muscle spindles
Located in myofibril. Responsible for monitoring and maintaining muscle tone
How are myofibrils connected
Proteins such as the intermediate filament desmin link the myofibrils to the basal lamina (which is in turn linked to the endomysium, etc)
Where is smooth muscle found?
stomach, intestinal track, bladder, and blood vessels. (along hollow viscera and tubes)
How does smooth muscle differ from skeletal muscle?
contractile proteins criss-cross cell, results in "rounding up" of cell upon contraction. No neuromuscular junctions.
What are intercalculated discs?
Present in cardiac muscle. Specialized transverse junctions, at Z lines. Bind cells, transmit contraction, and expedite excitation through myocardium
3 types of junctions in intercalated discs
Gap junctions and junctions similar to adhering junctions (actin) and desmesomes (desmin)