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47 Cards in this Set

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What are the permanent gases?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Neon, helium, Hydrogen, Xenon
What are the Variable gases?
Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Ozone, Particles (dust, soot, ect.), CFCs.
What is the vertical structure of the earth's atmosphere based on temperature?
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere
What is the vertical structure of the earth's atmosphere based on chemical composition?
Homosphere and Heterosphere
What is the vertical Structure of the earth's atmosphere based on function?
Ozonosphere and Ionosphere
What are Chloroflurocarbons? How do they affect our atmosphere?
CFCs are a group of greenhouse gases that had been increasing in concentration. They have the potential for raising global temperatures and they play a part in destroying the gas ozone in the statosphere.
Both air pressure and air density _______ with increasing altitude.
Decrease
what is energy?
The ability or capacity to do work on some form of matter. It is the driving force in our environment and takes various forms.
The amount of energy in our universe is _________.
Constant
What is the primary source of energy that powers our atmosphere?
Solar Energy
What is the First Law of Thermodynamics?
"total amount of energy in the iniverse is constant. Energy cannot be created mor destroyed. It merely changes from one form to another."
What are the various forms of energy?
Heat energy, kinetic energy (energy in motion), chemical energy (stored energy), solar energy, internal energy (energy from the earth's crust).
What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
The amount of radiation given off by the sun at each wavelength
What are the different regions of the Spectrum?
Ultraviolet, Visible light, near infrared, Far infrared, Microwave, TV wave, Short radio waves, AM radio waves.
How is the radiation from the Sun different from the radiation from the Earth?
The sun emits most of its radiation at shorter wavelength with maximum intensity at 5um. The earth emits most of its radiation at longer wavelength with maximum intensity at 10um.
What is Shortwave Radiation?
The radiant energy emitted from the sun, in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths.
What is Longwave Radiation?
The infrared energy emitted by the earth and the atmosphere.
How is incoming solar energy interfered by out atmosphere through absorption?
Some energy is absorbed by gases, such as ozone in the upper atmosphere.
How is incoming solar energy interfered by out atmosphere through reflection?
During the process of reflection, light is sent backwards. Clouds and snow are a few things that can reflect light. Water reflects only a small amount of solar energy.
How is incoming solar energy interfered by out atmosphere through scattering?
When sunlight strikes very small objects, such as air molecules and dust particles, the light is deflected in all directions.
What is albedo?
The percent of radiation returning from a given surface compared to the amount of radiation initially striking that surface.
How does the atmosphere greenhouse effect come about?
Visible radiation can come into the atmosphere, but the passage of outgoing infrared radiation is inhibited because it is absorbed from the earth by water vapor and CO2.
What gases are responsible for the atmosphere greenhouse effect?
water vapor, CO2, and other greehouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone) play a role in keeping the earth's mean surface temp. higher than it normally would be.
Why is the sky blue?
The sun's rays hit the Earth's atmosphere, where the light is scattered by nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the air. The blue wavelength of this light is affected more than the red and green wavelengths, causing the surrounding air to appear blue.
How is the Earth's energy Balance maintained?
All objects not only radiate energy, they absorb it as well.
What are sunspots?
Dark regions on the surface of the sun caused by magnetic storms. They have a diameter of 6000 miles or more and have an everaeg temp. of about 1500 degrees Celcius--cooler than the surrounding surface.
What is plasma?
When the sun emits electrically charged particles (mainly hydrogen nuclei and free electrons) and the charged particles travel through space.
How to auroras come about?
As solar wind comes close to earth, it interacts with the earth's magnetic field. This creates a glowing light (auroras)
Describe Revolution
The earth orbits around the sun. One complete orbit (revolution) = 1 year.
The earth's orbit is _______
elliptical
The Earth is closest to the sun on January 3rd, called _____________.
perihelion
The earth is farthest from the sun on July 4th, called _________.
aphelion
Describe Rotation
As the earth revolves it rotates about its axis.
The earth rotates _____ to_____.
west to east
One rotation produces ____ & _____.
day and night
June 21st is _______ ________.
summer solsitice.
During Summer Solstice, the noon sun is directly overhead at ________________.
tropic of cancer
During Summer Solsitice, every latitude in _______ hemisphere receives more energy than corresponding latitude in ______ hemisphere.
northern, southern
During Summer Solstice, every place ____ of the Antarctic Circle has no darkness, every place ____ has no daylight
North, South
December 21st is _____ ______
Winter Solstice
During winter solstice, the noon sun is directly overhead at _____________.
Tropic of Capricorn
During Winter Solsitice, every latitude in _______ hemisphere receives more energy than corresponding latitude in ______ hemisphere.
South, North
During winter solsitce, every place ____ of the Antarctic Circle has no darkness, every place ____ has no daylight.
South, North.
March 20th is _____ _____.
Vernal (Spring) Equinox.
During Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes, the noon sun is directly overhead at the _____.
equator
September 22nd is _____ ______.
Autumnal (Fall) Equinox
What are the five reasons for seasons?
1. Revolution
2. Rotation
3. Tilt of the earth's axis
4. Axial Parallelism
5. Sphericity